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Sustainable infrastructure through structural health monitoring

This project has helped to establish long-term UK-Indonesia collaboration on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) whilst simultaneously developing links between research community and SHM industry to improve maintenance and ensure the integrity of infrastructure.

Sustainable infrastructure primary


Research background

This completed project involved BCU, University of Warwick (the funding lead), Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia), and the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and Housing.

Infrastructure systems deteriorate while in service due to routine use and exposure to extreme conditions (e.g., corrosive environment and dynamic loads). Serviceability of infrastructure and raising sufficient funding to repair and replace them is challenging. In order to optimise the maintenance, long-term reliability and life-cycle cost of infrastructure systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) provides valuable information for engineers and decision makers in government.

This project has helped to establish long-term UK-Indonesia collaboration on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) whilst simultaneously developing links between research community and SHM industry to improve maintenance and ensure the integrity of infrastructure.

Research aims

  • A research programme; addressing the real needs of the sector and solving real life problems related to monitoring and post-processing of the recorded data from infrastructure. In this case, Suramadu Bridge in Indonesia has been selected.
  • A support programme; developing a guideline for practical use in SHM and maintenance of monitoring system.
  • An education and training programme; focusing on developing capacity at university and technician level in support of the development of the SHM 
  • A database programme; to collect, post-process and store data from infrastructure for future studies and tracking the health of a system.

How was the research carried out?

Suramadu Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge which is part of a 5.4km long connection between Madura Island and Surabaya on the island of Java in Indonesia. Constructed over six years (2003–2009).

Suramadu Bridge is an essential part of transportation for eastern Java in Indonesia. After the construction, the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and Housing (IMPWH) invested in monitoring and maintenance of the bridge due to the fact that resiliency and serviceability of the bridge are essential for the economy of the region.

After the construction of the bridge, an extensive set of sensors were installed in 2009 and 2011. In Suramadu Bridge, anemometers are implemented in order to measure the magnitude and direction of wind speed, GPS to measure any displacement, air temperature and relative humidity (ATRH) sensors were installed to measure ambient temperature and humidity in pylons and girders.  

Accelerometers are important device in SHM to measure the vibration occurred in the bridge.

Weigh-in-motion sensors provide valuable information about the non-stationary traffic loads such as total number of vehicles and their weight on each axle and can be used for fatigue analysis. Other sensors such as strain sensors, displacement transducer, corrosion sensors (for steel bar, concrete and girder) cathodic protection monitoring and rain sensors are installed in Suramadu bridge which provides an extensive database for monitoring and research about the performance of the bridge.

The data collected from the monitoring system is used to validate and update an advanced computer model of the bridge to be used in damage detection and performance assessment under different hazards such as earthquakes and tsunami.

Research outcomes

One of the outcomes of this research is the “The Centre for Intelligent Infrastructure in Indonesia (IntelStruct) is an international collaboration between the University of Warwick and Birmingham City University in the UK, Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and Housing (IMPWH), and Universities in Indonesia with the goal to develop intimately linked programmes for education and training, research about Structural Health Monitoring (SHM).

This partnership blends the capabilities of Universities and partners both in the UK and Indonesia, for the benefit of all involved, and to reach the common goal of supporting the Government of Indonesia in their quest to increase the sustainability and resiliency of current infrastructures.

IntelStruct is based within the School of Engineering, University of Warwick. It has established an international research programme since October 2016 in the fields of Structural Health Monitoring. IntelStruct seeks to attain a reputation for excellence in research, and training in the field of SHM and performance assessment of infrastructures.

The output of the research group have been presented in international conferences, including:

Salami MR, Jesus A, AP. Pamuncak, I. Zarkasi, B. Suhendro, B. Budiono, P. Suprobo, Laory I. Long-term structural health monitoring of Suramadu Bridge. The 8th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure, Brisbane, Australia, 2017.