HRM and Leadership in SMEs

The HRM and Leadership in SMEs Cluster is part of the Centre for Enterprise, Innovation and Growth at Birmingham City Business School. The cluster is led by Prof. Alexandros Psychogios and is made up of a team of research active staff and PhD students working on a variety of HRM and Leadership projects in SMEs.

HRM and leadership in SMEs

The focus of the Cluster is to enhance research and understanding on various HRM and organizational behaviour issues in SMEs. The Cluster’s mission is to engage in interdisciplinary research driven initiatives and practice of managing people in SMEs. The cluster aims to meet the following objectives:

  • To produce high quality research for SMEs
  • To produce practical solutions to advance business and competitive growth locally, regionally and internationally.
  • To facilitate research informed teaching
  • To transfer knowledge gain with stakeholders

Areas of activity

Leadership in SMES with special focus on: 

  • Strategic Leadership
  • Relational Leadership
  • Complexity Leadership
  • Neuroscience and Leadership
  • Leading Virtual Teams 
  • Crisis Leadership
  • Leadership Development
  • Coaching

HRM in SMEs with special focus on: 

  • Working Conditions
  • Employee Voice & Communication
  • Workers’ Rights
  • Flexible and Virtual working 
  • Diversity Management and Equality
  • Performance and Talent Management
  • Reward Management

Staff working in this cluster

PhD students


  1. Psychogios, A., Blakcori, F., Szamosi, L., & O’Regan, N. (2019). From feeding-back to feeding-forward: managerial feedback as a trigger of change in SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 26(1), 18-42.
  2. Psychogios, A., Nyfoudi, M., Theodorakopoulos, N., Szamosi, L. T., & Prouska, R. (2019). Many Hands Lighter Work? Deciphering the Relationship between Adverse Working Conditions and Organization Citizenship Behaviours in Small and Mediumsized Enterprises during a Severe Economic Crisis. British Journal of Management, 30(3), 519-537.
  3. Prouska, R., & Psychogios, A. (2019). Should I say something? A framework for understanding silence from a line manager’s perspective during an economic crisis. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 40(3), 611-635.
  4. Prouska, R., & Psychogios, A. (2018). Do not say a word! Conceptualizing employee silence in a long-term crisis context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(5), 885-914.
  5. Prouska, ReaPsychogios, A. and Rexhepi, Yllka (2016) Rewarding employees in turbulent economies for improved organisational performance: exploring SMEs in the South-Eastern European region. Personnel Review, 45(6). pp.1259 – 1280
  6. Psychogios, A. Szamosi, Prouska R. and Brewster, C., (2016) A Three-fold Framework for Understanding HRM Practices in South-Eastern European SMEs, Employee Relations, 38(3), pp. 310-331
  7. Psychogios, A. and Garev, S. (2012), Understanding Complexity Leadership Behaviour in SMEs: Lessons from a Turbulent Business Environment, Emergence: Complexity & Organisation, 14(3), 1-22


  1. Exploring HR practices in SMEs during Crisis – Prof. Alexandros Psychogios
  2. Complex adaptive leadership in SMEs – Prof. Alexandros Psychogios
  3. Understanding the neuropsychological leadership qualities associated with the BIG Ten Capabilities of growth - Prof. Mark Gilman & Prof. Alexandros Psychogios
  4. Exploring the impact of business environment turbulences on talent management practices of SMEs – Mrs Bertha Kumozgi, Prof. Alexandros Psychogios & Dr. Stefania Paladini (PhD Project)
  5. Making sense of Corporate Social Responsibility through institutions in SMEs: A Multi-Case Approach – Mrs Hira Gulshan, Prof. Alexandros Psychogios & Dr. Scott Lichtenstein (PhD Project)