Tackling racism in sport
Researchers at Birmingham City University are exposing racial disparities in sport from grassroots to the professional level.
Criminologists at the University are exploring how Islamophobia in football impacts male and female football players both on and off the pitch, and found participants reporting hate crimes from members of the public, players from opposing teams and management.
Their studies have led to FA action in a bid to raise awareness and tackle discrimination in football at all levels.
Academics in the Sports department have also brought to light the significant under-representation of British South Asian cricketers at the professional level in the UK.
Studies found that privately educated white cricketers were 34 times more likely to make it into the professional game than state educated players from South Asian backgrounds.
The research has led to discussions about institutionalised racism in UK sports and measures that need to be taken to kick racism out of the games.