Harvard - Printed Sources

Printed Sources

Click below to discover how to reference a wide range of printed sources.

Printed books

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Examples of first/second edition:

Bradshaw, P. (2017) The Online Journalism Handbook: Skills to survive and thrive in the digital age. 2nd edn. Abingdon: Routledge.

Cox, S. A. (2014) Managing Information in Organizations: A practical guide to implementing an information management strategy. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

 

Examples of multiple authors:

Awan, I., Spiller, K. and Whiting, A. (2019) Terrorism in the Classroom: Security, surveillance and a public duty to act. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan.

Cleaver, E., Lintern, M. and McLinden, M. (2018) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Disciplinary approaches to educational enquiry. 2nd edn. London: Sage.

Edger, C. and Emmerson, A. (2015) Franchising: How both sides can win. Faringdon: Libri Publishing.

McGrath, J. and Coles, A. (2013) Your Education Research Project Companion. 2nd edn. Harlow: Pearson.

 

Examples with corporate authors:

Action for Communities in Rural England (ACRE) (2010) Rural Community Buildings in England 2009. Cirencester: ACRE.

Landscape Institute (2003) Guide to Procedure for Competitive Tendering. London: Landscape Institute.

 

Edited books

  • Editorship, ed./eds.
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

For books which are edited, give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed. (for one editor) or eds. (for several editors). Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Examples of edited books:

Clapson, M. and Larkham, P. J., eds. (2013) The Blitz and Its Legacy: Wartime destruction to post-war reconstruction. Farnham: Ashgate.

Cooper, S. L., ed. (2014) Controversies in Innocence Cases in America. Farnham: Ashgate.

Denny, E. and Earle, S., eds. (2009) Sociology for Nurses. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Polity.

Hussain, J. G. and Scott, J. M., eds. (2015) Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Finance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

 

Examples of classical works which are edited:

Classic works of literature will be edited and you will need to acknowledge the edition that you are using for quotations. Where a particular edition is crucial to the argument, although the author remains the same, the contribution of the editor needs to be acknowledged. The requirement to use the date of publication of the edited work leads to anachronisms in the list of references.

  • Editorship, ed./eds.
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edited by First name Surname
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Joyce, J. (1990) Occasional, Critical and Political Writing. Edited by Kevin Barry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Joyce, J. (1984) Ulysses: A critical and synoptic edition. Prepared by Hans Walter Gabler with Wolfhard Steppe and Claus Melchior. 3 vols. New York: Garland Publishing.

Shakespeare, W. (2004) The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Edited by William C. Carroll. London: Arden Shakespeare.

Shakespeare, W. (2005) The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Edited by Norman J. Sanders and Stanley W. Wells. New edn. London: Penguin.

 

Chapters of edited books

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Chapter title.
  • In: Editorship, ed./eds.
  • Book Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • pp. pages.

An in-text reference for these would only provide the author's name, not the editor’s. Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Examples:

Aubrey, C., Blackburn, C., Jones, C. and Lowe, R. (2017) The regulated child. In: A. Owen, ed. Childhood Today. London: Sage, pp. 61-73.

Lewis, D., O'Boyle-Duggan, M. and Poultney, S. (2017) Communication skills education and training in pre-registration BSc NursingIn: D. W. Kissane, B. D. Bultz, P. N. Butow, C. L. Bylund, S. Noble and S. Wilkinson, eds. Oxford Textbook of Communication in Oncology and Palliative Care. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 149-154.

Smallwood, P. (2012) The classical critics. In: D. Hopkins and C. Martindale, eds. The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature, Volume 3: 1660-1790. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 361-400.

 

Plays and poetry

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference.

Example:

Miller, A. (1968) The Crucible: A play in four acts. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Shakespeare, W. (1995) Twelfth Night or What You Will. Edited by Roger Warren and Stanley Wells. New edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

Religious texts

  • Title
  • (Year)
  • Edited by First name Surname (optional).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

You need to specify the specific translation or version of the text that you are using for your citation.

Examples:

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments with the Apocryphal/Deutero-canonical Books: New revised standard version (1989) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Mishnah, Translated from the Hebrew with Introduction and Brief Explanatory Notes (1933) Edited and translated by Herbert Danby. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Holy Qur’an (1994) Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.

 

Journal articles

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Journal Title,
  • Volume(Issue),
  • pp. pages.

Students and University researchers are increasingly likely to be accessing journal articles online. However you do not need to include any information about how you obtained an article, as long as you include the required elements.

The authorship should include the surnames of all the authors of the journal article unless there are more than 10. If there are more than 10, use et al. after the tenth.

Examples:

Abdallah, Z. S., Gaber, M. M., Srinivasan, B. and Krishnaswamy, S. (2016) AnyNovel: detection of novel concepts in evolving data streams: an application for activity recognition. Evolving Systems, 7(2), pp. 73-93.

Page, A. and McDonnell, A. (2013) Holding children and young people: defining skills for good practice. British Journal of Nursing, 22(20), pp. 1153-1158.

Smith, I. L., Brown, S., Nixon, J., Cowdell, F. C., Ersser, S., Fernandez, C., Goodfield, M., Green, C. M., Hampton, P., Lear, J. T. et al. (2016) Treatment of severe, chronic hand eczema: results from a UK-wide survey. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 42(2), pp. 185-188.

Yardley, E., Wilson, D., Kemp, D. and Brookes, M. (2015) Narrative beyond prison gates: contradiction, complexity and reconciliation. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(2), pp. 159-179. 

 

You may wish to cite letters to the editor which function as comment on previous articles and appear in certain journals. Simply add 'letter to the editor' after the title as in this example:

Chang, B. P., Carter, E., Ng, N., Flynn, C. and Tan, T. (2018) Association of clinician burnout and perceived clinician-patient communication: letter to the editor. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36, pp. 156–158.

 

Magazine articles

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Magazine Title,
  • Volume(Issue) / Day and Month,
  • pp. pages.

You may not find a volume number and the issue numbers may well relate to a weekly, monthly or seasonal issue.

Examples:

Blackburn, C. (2017) Developmental risk for children born prematurely. Early Years Educator, 18(12), pp. 32-34.

Moore, K. (2011) From technology towards ideas. ‘Scape. The International Magazine for Landscape Architecture and Urbanism, April, p. 7.

Simcock, P. and Manthorpe, J. (2018) Social Work and CJD: updating the guidelines. CJD Support Network Newsletter, 27, pp. 10-11.

 

Newspaper articles

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Newspaper Title,
  • Day and Month,
  • pp. pages.

Where the page numbers of a section or supplement are the same as the main body of the newspaper, the section or supplement of the newspaper is included as a sub-title.

Example:

Dingle, C. (2008) Sin isn’t interesting. I prefer flowers. The Guardian: Film & music, 29 August, p. 15.

 

For reviews of plays or musical performances include the reviewer’s name, the director’s details and the location of the production.

Example:

Laws, R. (2016) Those star-cross'd lovers are looking rather peaky!; students give bard's play a brummie makeover. Review of Macbeth - Kill Bill Shakespeare, an adaptation of Macbeth by Malachi Bogdanov. Crescent Theatre, Birmingham. Birmingham Evening Mail, 20 February, p. 6.

 

If there is no author, use the publication name in-text and in the reference list (newspaper titles are always in italics).

Example:

Financial Times (2012) Tax officials reveal 4,000 companies under investigation, 28 June, p. 2.

 

Conference proceedings

  • Editorship, ed./eds.
  • (Year)
  • Title of Conference.
  • Location,
  • Conference date(s).
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.

Examples:

Jankovic, L., ed. (2016) Zero Carbon Buildings Today and in the Future - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference. Birmingham, UK, 8-9 September 2016. Birmingham: Birmingham City University.

United Nations (2008) Building Trust through Civic Engagement: Workshop based on the 7th global forum on reinventing government. Vienna, Austria, 26-29 June 2007. New York: United Nations.

 

Articles in conference proceedings

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Paper title.
  • In:Title of Conference.
  • Location,
  • Conference date(s).
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher,
  • pp. pages.

Papers presented at conferences are a particular feature of references in computing, telecommunications and networking articles. However, there is considerable variability in the format of conference papers that appear as references in academic articles. Use the Download citation option if you are using IEEE Xplore and remove the url and DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if these are given.

Examples:

Bull, P., Austin, R., Popov, E., Sharma, M. and Watson, R. (2016) Flow-based security for IoT devices using an SDN gateway. In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). Vienna, Austria, 22-24 August 2016. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, pp. 157-163.

Jillings, N., Wang, Y., Reiss, J. and Stables, R. (2016) JSAP: a plugin standard for the web audio API with intelligent functionality. In: Proceedings of the 141st Audio Engineering Society Convention. Los Angeles, 29 September - 2 October 2016, ebrief 301.

 

Reports

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Only include an edition where it is not the first. You will find that many reports are now published online; to reference these, see the electronic sources page.

Examples:

Harvey, S., McMahon, L. and Liddell, A. (2007) Windmill 2007: The future of health care reforms in England. London: The King's Fund.

Underwood, J., Baguley, T. S., Banyard, P., Coyne, E., Farrington-Flint, L. and Selwood, I. (2007) Impact 2007: Personalising learning with technology. Final report. Coventry: British Educational Communication and Technology Agency.

 

Technical reports

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher
  • (Reference number).

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Publications available through the Construction Information Service by CIRIA, BSRIA, RIBA etc. usually have an author which you should use. If there is no clear author, use the name of the organization from the title page.

Examples:

Berry, C. and McCarthy, S. (2011) Guide to Sustainable Procurement in Construction. London: CIRIA (CIRIA C695).

Concrete Society (2016) Concrete Industrial Ground Floors: A guide to design and construction. 4th edn. Camberley: Concrete Society (Technical Report 34).

Wegmann, E. (2009) Relation between Compressibility and Viscoelastic Material Properties of a Brake Pad. Warrendale, PA: SAE International (SAE Paper 2009-01-3017).

 

Dictionaries and encyclopaedias (including Grove Dictionary)

1. Edited dictionaries and encylopaedias

Where there is no named author or obvious editor, then you would not normally put the dictionary in the reference list, and any reference to it in your text would be by the title of the work and date of publication (the page number is optional). For example, you might describe something as defined by The Chambers Dictionary (1998: 225).

Where there is a(are) named editor(s) and you feel it appropriate to quote from a general dictionary or encyclopaedia use the format:

  • Editorship, ed./eds.
  • (Year)
  • Title of Dictionary.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Example:

Kennedy, M., ed. (1980) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. 3rd edn. London: Oxford University Press.

 

2. Articles in edited dictionaries and encyclopaedias (e.g. Grove Dictionary)

Articles in larger dictionaries which are edited or in dictionaries which are multi-volume should be treated as chapters in edited books and include the volume number and the chapter title in the format:

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Entry title.
  • In: Editorship, ed./eds.
  • Dictionary Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Volume,
  • pp. pages.

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Examples:

Anderson, N. and Thompson, S. (2001) Duplessis. In: S. Sadie, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd edn. London: Macmillan, Vol. 7, pp. 721-722.

Sperling, C. and Cooper, S. L. (2013) When science changes, how does law respond? In: J.A. Siegel and P.J. Saukko, eds. Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. 2nd edn. London: Academic Press, Vol. 2, pp. 476-480.

 

Dissertations and theses

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Level.
  • University.

Dissertations and theses are treated in a similar way to printed books but instead of giving information about the publisher you need to give the name of the institution where the dissertation was undertaken and the type of degree for which it was written.

Example:

Hunt, L. A. (2014) Failing Securely: Enabling mentors to fail underperforming student nurses in practical assessments. Ph.D. Thesis. Birmingham City University.