Harvard - Other Sources

Other sources

Click below to discover how to reference Hansard, Legal and Governmental, unpublished, and a range of other resources.

Hansard

Hansard overview

Hansard provides the official report of all parliamentary debates and is online at http://hansard.parliament.uk/. As well as reports from the latest sittings of Parliament, the online material contains the House of Commons archive from 1988 and the House of Lords archive from 1995. The online content also includes historic debates from 1803.

The BCU Harvard style for referencing Hansard (apart from written questions and answers) conforms to the House of Commons Information Office Factsheet G17.

Hansard references (apart from written questions and answers) should NOT be included in your reference list as their citation contains the entire reference. Just include the word "Hansard" in italics followed by a comma then the reference detail.

Hansard entries

  • HC/HL Deb
  • Day Month Year
  • vol Volume number
  • cColumn / ccColumns

Examples:

HC Deb 24 May 2005 vol 434 c661

HL Deb 20 July 2015 vol 764 cc899-901

 

In quoting very old Hansards it is usual to also include the series number:

HC Deb (4th series) 26 August 1907 vol 169 cc179-180

 

In-text:

Hansard written statements

  • HC/HL Deb
  • Day Month Year
  • vol Volume number
  • cColumnWS / ccColumnsWS

Example:

HC Deb 19 July 2017 vol 627 c47WS

 

Most written ministerial statements are made in both Houses so the House of Commons statement is usually preferred:

Hansard written questions and answers

The BCU Harvard style for referencing Hansard written questions and answers is based on the advice given by Debbie Cesvette, Executive Officer at the House of Commons in Cite Them Right (Pears and Shields, 2016: 51 and xix). Since 12 September 2014 written questions and answers have been published online so the Hansard column reference is no longer used. You must cite the HC or HL number so that references to written questions and answers since that date should be given in the following form.

Unlike other types of Hansard reference, written questions and answers should be included in your reference list.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • UK Parliament: Written question / answer,
  • Date,
  • HC/HL Number.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Mulholland, G. (2016) Radicalism. UK Parliament: Written question, 20 June, HC 41047. Available at: http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Commons/2016-06-20/41047/ [Accessed 18 July 2016].

Bradley, K. (2016) Radicalism. UK Parliament: Written answer, 28 June, HC 41047. Available at: http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Commons/2016-06-20/41047/ [Accessed 18 July 2016].

 

When citing them just use the normal BCU Harvard format:

(Bradley, 2016)

 

Hansard entries from Westminster Hall

Since 1999, Westminster Hall debates have given MPs an opportunity to raise local or national issues and receive a response from a government minister. These debates take place away from the main debating chamber and are reported in Hansard.

  • HC/HL Deb
  • Day Month Year
  • vol Volume number
  • cColumnWH / ccColumnsWH

Example:

HC Deb 12 July 2017 vol 627 c159WH

 

In-text:

Public Bill Commitee entries

1. Standard entries

  • Bill Name Deb
  • Day Month Year
  • cColumn / ccColumns

Example:

Digital Economy Bill Deb 28 November 2016 cc1268-1368

 

2. Abbreviated entries

  • PBC Deb
  • (Bill number)
  • Day Month Year
  • cColumn / ccColumns

Example:

PBC Deb (Bill 87) 28 November 2016 cc1268-1368

 

When citing, just include the word "Hansard" in italics followed by a comma then the reference detail. The Bill number may be omitted if the context is obvious:

Standing Committee entries

Standing Committee entries exist up to 2006.

  • SC Deb (A)
  • Day Month Year
  • cColumn / ccColumns

Example:

SC Deb (A) 13 June 1996 c301

 

Hansard Standing Committee entries should not be included in your reference list as their citation contains the entire reference. Just include the word "Hansard" in italics in your text followed by a comma then the reference detail:

 

Legal and Governmental sources

Recent Acts of UK Parliament

You may have viewed the full-text of an act of the UK Parliament through a subscription site such as Lexis or WestLaw, or directly through the UK Government's legislation website. However, you should cite the act as if you have used the printed source.

Reference an act by its short title and date. Acts of the UK Parliament are divided into sections, subsections, paragraphs and sub-paragraphs. In addition, many acts contain schedules that may themselves be divided into paragraphs and sub-paragraphs. In your work, it will normally be sufficient to refer to the section number or schedule number and paragraph. To refer to a particular element of the act use s or ss (section or sections) Pt (Part) or Sch. and para. (Schedule and paragraph within a schedule).

  • Act Title and Year,
  • c. chapter number.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example:

Care Act 2014, c. 23. London: The Stationery Office.

 

In-text

Acts of UK Parliament (before 1963)

For Acts prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included.

  • Act Title and Year
  • (Regal year(s), abbreviated monarch name, c. chapter number).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Examples:

Road Transport Lighting Act 1957 (5 & 6 Eliz. 2, c. 51). London: HMSO.

 

For acts published earlier than 1889, which was when HMSO was granted letters patent to print all acts of Parliament, supply the source you used to view the act.

  • Act Title and Year
  • (Regal year(s), abbreviated monarch name, c. chapter number).
  • In: Title (optional)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c. 1). In: The Statutes of the Realm (1817). London: George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Vol. 3, p. 508.

 

Statutory Instruments

Subordinate (delegated) legislation is issued in a series called Statutory Instruments (SIs) which have been published in paper form since 1894. They should be cited by their designated title which includes the year they were passed followed by SI year/number.

  • Title,
  • SI Year/Number.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example:

The NHS Bodies and Local Authorities (Partnership Arrangements, Care Trusts, Public Health and Local Healthwatch) Regulations 2012, SI 2012/3094. London: The Stationery Office.

 

In-text:

Legal cases in England and Wales since 2001 with a neutral citation

The BCU Harvard format for legal cases follows the 4th edition of the OSCOLA standard.

1. Reported judgements

Where judgments have been reported, give the neutral citation followed by a citation of the most authoritative report, separated by a comma in the format:

  • Case Name
  • [Year]
  • Court
  • Number,
  • [Year] / (Year)
  • Volume
  • Report Abbreviation
  • First page

Since 2001, neutral citations have been used by the House of Lords, Privy Council and the Supreme Court which are independent of any law report. Citations appear in the format:

  • Case Name
  • [Year]
  • UKHL / UKPC / UKSC,
  • [Year] / (Year)
  • Volume
  • Report Abbreviation
  • First page

Examples:

Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 46, [2015] AC 106

Crabbie v General Medical Council [2002] UKPC 45, [2002] 1 WLR 3104

Holmes-Moorhouse v Richmond-upon-Thames London Borough Council [2009] UKHL 7, [2009] 3 All ER 277

Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11, [2015] 2 WLR 768

 

This practice was extended to all divisions of the High Court (EWHC) in 2002. These appear in the format:

  • Case Name
  • [Year]
  • EWHC
  • Number
  • (division abbreviation),
  • [Year] / (Year)
  • Volume
  • Report abbreviation
  • First page

…where division abbreviation is either Ch (for Chancery) QB (for Queen’s Bench) Fam (for Family) Admin (for Administration), Comm (for Commercial) and so on for all 12.

Examples:

Houshian v General Medical Council [2012] EWHC 3458 (QB), [2012] All ER (D) 53 (Dec)

Johnson and another v Nursing & Midwifery Council [2013] EWHC 2140 (Admin), [2013] All ER (D) 234 (Jul)

Johnson and another v Nursing & Midwifery Council [2013] EWHC 2140 (Admin), [2013] All ER (D) 234 (Jul)

 

It was also extended to the two divisions of the Court of Appeal (EWCA) in 2002. These appear in the format:

  • Case Name
  • [Year]
  • EWCA
  • Civ / Crim
  • Number,
  • [Year] / (Year)
  • Volume
  • Report abbreviation
  • First page

…where "Civ" stands for "Civil" and "Crim" stands for "Criminal".

Examples:

Halsey v Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA Civ 576, [2004] 1 WLR 3002

R v Tucker [2016] EWCA Crim 13, (2016) 180 JP 225

 

Examples of citing law reports are given in the next section.

2. Unreported judgements

Where a judgement with a neutral citation has not been reported, give only the neutral citation as in the formats above. But check these cases before you submit your work as they may have subsequently been reported.

Example:

Simantob v Yacob Shavleyan (trading as Yacob's Gallery) [2018] EWHC 2005 (QB).

 

Transcripts of judgements with neutral citations are generally freely available on the British and Irish Legal Information Institute website and so appear online quicker than printed versions. The cases are numbered consecutively throughout the year.

The abbreviations used are standard legal abbreviations for sources. You can find these using the Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations.

 

Legal cases in England and Wales before 2001

The BCU Harvard format for legal cases follows the 4th edition of the OSCOLA standard. This document advises that in England and Wales the Law Reports series published by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting should be regarded as the most authoritative reports.

Different series of the Law Reports cover judgments of the House of Lords/Supreme Court and Privy Council (Appeal Cases), the Chancery Division, the Family Division, the Queen’s Bench Division and so on. These law reports are always cited with square brackets because there is more than one volume in the year.

In 2001, the House of Lords, Privy Council, Court of Appeal and Administrative Court began issuing judgments with a neutral citation which identified the judgment independently of any law report. This was adopted by all divisions of the High Court in 2002. See the above section for how to reference these.

For cases before 2001, if a judgment was not reported in the Law Reports, cite the Weekly Law Reports or the All England Law Reports. Only if a judgment was not reported in one of these general series should you refer to specialist sources such as Housing Law Reports, Construction Law Journal or Butterworths Medico-Legal Reports. The dates for these specialist series, such as in the example of Vadera v Shaw below, are cited in round brackets because the volume number is different to the year.

In your Table of Cases the format for cases before 2001 is:

  • Case Name
  • [Year] or (Year)
  • Volume (where required)
  • Report abbreviation
  • First page

Examples:

Bolitho (Deceased) v City and Hackney Health Authority [1998] AC 232


R v Adomako [1995] 1 AC 171


Vadera v Shaw (1999) 45 BMLR 162

 

In-text:

Notes:

When citing and referencing Law Reports, case names should always be in italics. When a particular passage is being quoted or referred to, the specific page reference must be included, e.g. The facts of the case outlined in Jones v Tower Boot Co Ltd [1997] 2 All ER 406 at 411 show that…

When referring to a case for the first time, give its full name (exactly as it appears in the report). However, in subsequent references, a case can be referred to by a shortened name, e.g. Murphy v Brentwood District Council may be referred to as the Murphy case.

When the judge is being quoted or referred to in a particular passage, the judge’s name should be provided as part of the citation, e.g. That was the opinion of Lord Mackay LC in Pepper v Hart [1993] 1 All ER 42 at 47…

 

House of Commons and House of Lords papers

These papers are produced by a Select Committee or for a Government department. They are published on the internet but academic practice is to cite the publications as if they are in a printed form.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher
  • (Official number).

Examples:

Chilcot, J. (2016) Report of the Iraq Inquiry. Executive Summary. London: The Stationery Office (HC 264 2016-17).

Francis, R. (2013) Report of the Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. London: The Stationery Office (HC 898 2012-13).

House of Commons Education Committee (2013) School Partnerships and Co-operation. Volume 1: Report. London: The Stationery Office (HC 269 2013-14).

Leveson, B. H. (2012) An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of The Press: Report. London: The Stationery Office (HC 780 2012-13).

 

Written and oral evidence is given to Select Committees which you may wish to cite but is not always published with the report. Use the format:

  • Author
  • (Year)
  • Written evidence.
  • In: Select Committee.
  • Title.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Ulgen, O. (2017) Written evidence (AIC0112). In: House of Lords Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence. The ethical implications of developing and using artificial intelligence and robotics in the civilian and military spheres. Available at: http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/artificial-intelligence-committee/artificial-intelligence/written/69598.html (Accessed 20 August 2018).

Birmingham City University (2018) Written evidence (RES0059). In: House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee. Responses from Universities on the Concordat. Available at: https://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/science-technology/Correspondence/Research-Integrity-letters.pdf (Accessed 20 August 2018).

 

UK Government Command papers

  • Government Department(s) / Royal Commission / Chairman
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher
  • (Official number).

Examples:

Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury (1978) Report: Vol.1. London: HMSO (Cmnd. 7054-I).

Laming, L. (2003) The Victoria Climbié Inquiry: Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Health and the Secretary for the Home Department by command of Her Majesty. London: The Stationery Office (Cm 5730).

Munro, E. (2011) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final report. A child-centred system. London: The Stationery Office (Cm 8062).

 

Where UK Government publications do not have a Command paper number, where the UK Government is the author and where the source is available online, use the most suitable format from the referencing electronic sources pages.

Example:

UK Government (2015) Revised Prevent Duty Guidance for England and Wales. [pdf] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/445977/3799_Revised_Prevent_Duty_Guidance__England_Wales_V2-Interactive.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2017].

 

UK Government Departmental papers

Use the UK Government department for which the report was commissioned or the surname of the chairman of the inquiry as the corporate author in the format:

  • Government Department(s) / Chairman
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.

Examples:

Department for Children, Schools and Families (2010) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. London: Department for Children, Schools and Families.

Latham, S. M. (1994) Constructing the Team: The Latham report. London: HMSO.

 

Official Journal (OJ) of the European Union Legislation

The primary legislation of the European Union consists of the founding treaties. Secondary legislation consists of regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions.

The full reference will be to the authoritative text in the Official Journal (abbreviated to OJ) of the European Union where the secondary legislation was first published, together with the title, date and page number.

  • European Union body
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • OJ,
  • Volume details,
  • Day and Month,
  • pp. pages.

Examples:

European Commission (2015) Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings (Recast). OJ, L141, 5 June, pp. 19-72.

European Commission (2012) Consolidated version of the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union. OJ, C326, 26 October, pp. 47-390.

 

In-text:

European Union documents (not in OJ)

  • European Union Body
  • (Year)
  • Title
  • (Reference number).
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Examples:

Article 29 Working Party (2005) Working Document on Data Protection Issues Related to Intellectual Property Rights (WP104). Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2005/wp104_en.pdf (Accessed 21 August 2018).

European Commission (2016) Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (COM (2016) 593 Final). Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52016PC0593&from=EN (Accessed 21 August 2018).

European Parliament (2018) Report on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, 29 June 2018 (COM(2016)0593 – C8-0383/2016 – 2016/0280(COD)).  Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A8-2018-0245+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN (Accessed 21 August 2018).

European Parliament (2018) Data retention rules on Article 13 of the proposed Directive on copyright in the digital single market. European Parliament: Written Answer, 2 July 2018, given by Ms Jourová on behalf of the Commission. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getAllAnswers.do?reference=E-2018-001848&language=EN (Accessed 21 August 2018).

 

International treaties and conventions

There are over 560 major multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. You are best advised to cite from the UN Treaty pages using the following guidance:

  • Title of Treaty
  • (Year)
  • Volume
  • UNTS
  • First page

Examples:

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (1998) 2161 UNTS 447

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 1577 UNTS 3

Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (1967) 606 UNTS 267

 

You may also find that these documents are reproduced on various UN agency web pages, in which case cite as a web page, but this leads to anachronisms with the dates:

Examples:

UNECE (1998) Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. Done at Aarhus, Denmark, 25 June. Available at: https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/pp/documents/cep43e.pdf [Accessed 17 February 2018].

UNICEF (2010) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: http://www.unicef.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/UNCRC_PRESS200910web.pdf [Accessed 22 March 2018].

UNOHCHR (2018) Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolStatusOfRefugees.aspx [Accessed 20 December 2018].

 

In the text of your work, cite the Treaty or the article of the Convention to which you are referring, for example:

For European treaties, follow the guidance in the Official Journal (OJ) of the European Union legislation above.

 

Unpublished sources

Lecture notes

  • Lecturer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Module Number and Name.
  • Department / Faculty,
  • Institution,
  • Day and Month
  • [lecture notes taken by Notetaker].

Example:

Cowell, M. (2014) Romanticism, industrialisation and the public landscape. LAN4008 Precedent: Terra forma. Faculty of Arts, Design and Media, Birmingham City University, 18 November [lecture notes taken by Daniel Wilby].

 

As this material is usually uploaded to Moodle, you are now far more likely to want to reference lecture sections or lecture slides from a Moodle site (see below).

 

Virtual Learning Environments (e.g. Moodle)

1. Modules

  • Lecturer
  • (Year)
  • Module Number and Name.
  • Department / Faculty,
  • Institution.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Jenkins, C. (2015) LBR6166 Dementia Care. Faculty of Health, Education and Life Sciences, Birmingham City University. Available through: http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=12797 [Accessed 14 August 2017].

 

2. Lecture sessions

  • Lecturer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Module Number and Name.
  • Department / Faculty,
  • Institution.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Jenkins, C. (2015) People with dementia in general hospitals. LBR6166 Dementia Care. Faculty of Health, Education and Life Sciences, Birmingham City University. Available through: http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=12797 [Accessed 14 August 2017].

 

3. Lecture slides

  • Lecturer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [media type]
  • Module Number and Name.
  • Department / Faculty,
  • Institution.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Lewis, D. (2014) Palliative care in dementia. [PowerPoint presentation] LBR6166 Dementia Care. Faculty of Health, Education and Life Sciences, Birmingham City University. Available through: http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=12797 [Accessed 14 August 2017].

 

4. Forum postings and discussion boards

  • Author
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Module Number and Name.
  • Department / Faculty,
  • Institution.
  • Day and Month.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Withers, P. (2014) Industrial mentor introduction. DIG4103 Music and Audio Industries UG1. Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment, Birmingham City University, 25 November. Available through: http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=11436 [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

Personal communications

You may wish to refer to the ideas of another with whom you have had verbal or written communication in whatever format. Make sure that the author is the surname of the person or the organization that is the source of the idea or information. You may need to obtain permission to include the reference in your work and you may wish to include any written communication as an Appendix.

  • Author
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [medium] (Optional)
  • (Personal communication,
  • Location of author,
  • Day and Month).

Example:

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland. (2016) Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland's active register. (Personal communication, 17 March).

Rossetti, N. (2011) Turboden Heat Recovery. [email] (Personal communication, 19 April).

Skone, T. (2013) Life-cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Plants. (Personal communication, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 5 March).

 

Internal reports and presentations

You may wish to reference slides from a presentation that you attended or has been supplied to you where the presentation or report is not available online. An example is a presentation from the organisation where you were on placement. Please check first with the organisation that they give you permission to use the material in your work. In a health context you will need to follow the guidance in maintaining confidentiality.

  • Author
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [media type] (for presentation)
  • Internal name of organisation report/presentation.
  • Unpublished

Examples:

Ireson, G. (1996) Improving the Links Between the Teaching of Physics and Mathematics in the 16-19 Age Range. Internal Institute of Physics report. Unpublished.

Smith, I. and Emmerson, P. (2009) Travel Plans: The potential is realised. Evidence from the Highways Agency’s ITB programme. [PowerPoint slides] Internal TRICS presentation. Unpublished..

 

Forthcoming publications

1. Books

  • Authorship
  • (Year, in press)
  • Title.
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example:

Rahman, M. (2019, in press) Organised Crime and Homicide. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan

 

2. Book chapters

  • Authorship
  • (Year, in press)
  • Chapter title.
  • In: Editorship, ed./eds.
  • Book Title.
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • pp. pages / c. chapter (optional).

Example:

Archer, C. (2019, in press) Type, typography and the typographer. In: S. Eliot and J. Rose, eds. New Companion to the History of the Book. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

3. Journal articles

See guidance in referencing an electronic source for pre-published journal articles.

 

 

Other

Archive material

  • Authorship
  • (Year(s))
  • Title.
  • [format]
  • Collection,
  • Document number.
  • Location:
  • Archive.

Example:

Birmingham Municipal School of Art (1885-1888) School of Art Management Sub-Committee Minutes, Vol. 1. [manuscript] Birmingham City University Art and Design Archives, SA/AD/2/1. Birmingham: Birmingham City University Art and Design Archives.

 

In-text:

(Birmingham Municipal School of Art, 1885-1888)

Unpublished material that is held in an archive or private collection examples:

Grist, J. (2004) The Century before Yesterday: John Grist's BBC and other broadcasting tales. Volume 2 [unpublished memoir] Private collection.

Strong, R. (1895) Education in Nursing. King’s College London Archives, KCL/RBNA 2/9. London: King's College London Archive Services.

 

Interviews

1. Personal interviews

A transcript of your interview must be included in an appendix in your piece of work (check your guidelines for more information about this). You need to check with the interviewee that they are in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made. An interview will normally be with a named person on a particular date and conducted by a specific person but you will need to provide a title. It is useful to give the venue.

  • Interviewee
  • (Year)
  • Title (optional).
  • Interviewed by Interviewer(s)
  • at Location,
  • Day and Month.

Examples:

Branson, R. (2014) Interviewed by John Doe at Birmingham City University, 4 July.

 

For interviews in printed sources, from broadcasts, or from sources that feature as part of additional material on DVD, use the referencing guidance for that particular format:

Downey, A. (2016) Future imperfect: focus on visual culture in the Middle East. Interviewed by Alan Cruikshank. Di'Van | A Journal of Accounts, 1, pp. 110-119.

Grange, K. (2011) Interview with Kenneth Grange. Interviewed by Mark Lawson for Front Row. [radio programme] BBC, UK19:15, 18 July, BBC Radio 4, 35 mins.

Morgan S. (1996) Beyond control: an interview with Susan Hiller. In: Susan Hiller [exhibition catalogue] Exhibition held at Tate Gallery, Liverpool, 20 January – 17 March. London: Tate Gallery Publishing, pp. 15-21.

Interview with Wim Wenders, Land of Plenty. [documentary extra, DVD] Directed by Wim Wenders. Interviewed by Mark Cousins. Axiom Studios, USA/Germany/Canada, 2004 [Axiom Studios, AXM555, 2008] 6 mins.

Whitburn, V. (2010) I’m steeped in the countryside: interview with Vanessa Whitburn. Interviewed by Elisabeth Mahoney for The Guardian: Media supplement, 13 December, p. 5.

   

2. Recorded interviews available online

  • Interviewee
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [video]
  • Interviewed by Interviewer(s)
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Hunter, K. (2016) Shakespeare for Inclusive Audiences. [video] Interviewed by Michael Dobson. Available through: https://www.digitaltheatreplus.com/ [Accessed 03 August 2017]. [in this example use Available through: as Digital Theatre Plus is a subscription site]

Yuzna, B. (2015) ScratchTVBCU Brian Yuzna Interview. [video] Interviewed by Chrissy Hall, 4 November. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhUWxkGEdNg&list=PLpQuPYCyuS5pgNidr4yx-CZ2hY5i8PqDn&index=12 [Accessed 31 May 2016].

 

For interviews available as audio files only, use the referencing guide for podcasts.

 

National Curriculum

1. Current national curriculum (2014)

  • Department
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [pdf]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Current version:

Department for Education (2014) The National Curriculum in England: Framework document. [pdf] Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/381344/Master_final_national_curriculum_28_Nov.pdf [Accessed 18 June 2019].

 

For specific subjects use the same format, for example, for English:

Department for Education (2014) National Curriculum in England: English programmes of study. Statutory guidance. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

In-text:

2. Former national curricula

Printed:

  • Department
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Online:

  • Department
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [pdf] (optional)
  • Place of publication (optional):
  • Publisher (optional).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Department for Education and Employment (1999) The National Curriculum for England: English key stages 1-4. London: Department for Education and Employment.

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2007) English: Programme of study for key stage 4. [pdf] Available at: http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/p/english%202007%20programme%20of%20study%20for%20key%20stage%204.pdf [Accessed 8 August 2014].

 

If you are referencing several former curricula or sections of curricula produced by the same department then you can abbreviate the name of the department in brackets when you first cite it. Subsequent references can then use the abbreviation.

For example, first citation in text: Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1999)...

Subsequent citations in text: DfEE (1999)...

The abbreviation should then appear after the full name in your reference as:

Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1999) The National Curriculum for England: English key stages 1-4. London: DfEE.

 

For specific subjects, in this case, English:

These would then be cited in your reference list as:

Department for Education (DfE) (1995) English in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.

Department for Education (2014) National Curriculum in England: English programmes of study. Statutory Guidance. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study [Accessed 8 August 2014].

Department of Education and Science (DES) (1990) English in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2007) English: Programme of study for key stage 4. [pdf] Available at: http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/p/english%202007%20programme%20of%20study%20for%20key%20stage%204.pdf [Accessed 8 August 2014].

 

Patents

  • Inventor
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Patent country and number,
  • Day and Month.

Examples:

Aftelak, A. J. (2001) Frequency Tracking Loop and Method of Frequency Tracking. UK Patent GB2347286, 18 April.

Zurek, R. A., Aftelak, A. J. and Maracas, G. N. (2011) Multi-device Coordinated Audio Playback. US Patent US7894511 B2, 22 February.

 

Standards

1. Printed

You will largely find standards through web-based subscription sites such as British Standards Online but academic practice is to cite the standards as if they are in a printed form.

  • Organisation
  • (Year)
  • Reference number:
  • Title.
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example:

BSI (2011) BS 31100: Risk management. Code of practice and guidance for the implementation of BS 31000. 2nd edn. London: BSI.

 

In-text:

2. Online

  • Organisation
  • (Year)
  • Reference number:
  • Title.
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (2014) Recommendation X.1211: Techniques for preventing web-based attacks. Geneva: ITU. Available at: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.1211-201409-I [Accessed 23 December 2014].

Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C., and Carney, M. (2003) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6). (IETF RFC 3315). Available at: http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315 [Accessed 23 December 2014].