Harvard - Electronic Sources

Electronic Sources

Click below to discover how to reference a wide range of electronic sources.

Ebooks

If the book is available in print, you do not need to reference it as an ebook. Follow the print book guidelines. Scroll down for guidance about ebooks that are only available online, or made for specific readers (e.g. Kindle).

Referencing a print book:

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

 

1. Ebooks only available online

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [e-book]
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Example:

Kafka, F. (2005) The Trial. [e-book] Translated by David Wyllie. Project Gutenberg.  Available through: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7849 [Accessed 26 June 2013].

Lindley, C. (2012) JQuery Succinctly. [e-book] Morrisville, NC: Syncfusion Inc. Available through: http://www.syncfusion.com/resources/techportal/ebooks/jquery [Accessed 26 June 2013].

   

2. Ebooks for specific readers

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [e-reader edition]
  • Edition.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Only include an edition where it is not the first.

Example:

Roberts, D. (2002) Shattered Bonds: The color of child welfare. [Kindle edition] New York: Basic Books.

  

Journal articles

Some peer-reviewed academic journals, newsletters and magazines are only available as online journals and have no print equivalents. The online versions usually show you how to cite the articles. The articles vary in the issue numbers that they have – some have issue numbers, some only have article numbers. Use 'Available through:' when an article is not directly available from the given URL.

1. Articles without a DOI link

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Journal Title,
  • Volume(Issue).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Churnside, C. (2017) “Guerra, guerra, all’armi o guerrieri!”: depictions of the Ottoman conflict in Bolognese cantatas. Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music, 20(1). Available at: https://sscm-jscm.org/jscm-issues/volume-20-no-1/guerra-guerra-allarmi-o-guerrieri-depictions-of-the-ottoman-conflict-in-bolognese-cantatas/ [Accessed 8 August 2017].

Davies, F. (2012) Fighting, beers and the queered: class, hyper-masculinity and reality TV. Flow TV, 15(12). Available at: http://flowtv.org/2012/05/fighting-beers-and-the-queere/ [Accessed 31 July 2015].

  

2. Articles with a DOI link

For online-only journal articles, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if supplied. This is a unique, permanent code which enables you to obtain an article. Systematic Reviews found in the Cochrane database are referenced this way.

Note: You should add "http://dx.doi.org/" in front of the code to make the link work.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Journal Title,
  • Volume(Issue) or equivalent.
  • Available at: DOI.

   

Examples:

Dumville, J. C., Webster, J., Evans, D. and Land, L. (2015) Negative pressure wound therapy for treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 5. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011334.pub2.

Hussein, M., Egan, H. and Mantzios, M. (2017) Mindful construal diaries: a less anxious, more mindful, and more self-compassionate method of eating. SAGE Open, 7(2). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2158244017704685.

  

3. Pre-published articles

You may have access to a document, usually an article that is published online before it is published in an issue of a journal, for which you may not be able to provide the full bibliographic details. In your reference list use the DOI for articles and include the words in press.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Title,
  • in press.
  • Available at: DOI.

   

Example:

Cowdell, F., Dyson, J., Long, J. and Macleod, U. (2018) Self‐reported skin concerns: an epidemiological study of community‐dwelling older people. International Journal of Older People Nursing, in press. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opn.12195.

 

In-text:

Reports (including PDFs and NICE Guidelines)

1. Electronic reports in PDF format

Omit the place of publication and publisher details if these are not supplied in the pdf itself. Only include an edition where it is not the first.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [pdf]
  • Edition.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

   

Examples:

Fautley, M. and Whittaker, A. (2017) Key Data on Music Education Hubs 2016. [pdf] Report for Arts Council England. Birmingham: Birmingham City University. Available at: https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/key_data_music_report.pdf [Accessed 30 August 2018].

Hopkins, T. and Kendall, A. (2017) Turning Pages, Changing Lives: An evaluation of the Shannon Trust reading programme Turning Pages. [pdf] Available at: https://www.shannontrust.org.uk/files/callouts/streport--turning-pages-98-pages.pdf [Accessed 15 November 2018].

 

You may wish to cite reports in pdf which form part of a series, in which case add the series number after the publisher in the format:

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [pdf]
  • Edition.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher
  • (Reference number).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Ministry of Defence (2015) Defence Engagement. [pdf] Swindon: Development, Concept and Doctrine Centre (Joint Doctrine Note 1/15). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/570579/20160104-Defence_engagement_jdn_1_15.pdf [Accessed 21 November 2017].

 

2.Electronic reports not in PDF format

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

   

Examples:

O'Reilly, T. (2005) What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Available at: http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html [Accessed 28 July 2016].

   

3. Online market research reports

Where reports are accessed through a password-protected site and they are not available in pdf, include the following elements:

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Croner-i (2018) Antiques Dealers: Investigation matters - critical review. Available through: https://library.croneri.co.uk/cbf/leisu/antique/topic6/t6p3 [Accessed 23 April 2018].

Euromonitor (2018) Footwear in China: Country report, February. Available through: https://www.portal.euromonitor.com [Accessed 15 August 2018].

Mintel (2018) Social and Media Networks - UK, May 2018. Available through: http://academic.mintel.com/display/859203/ [Accessed 15 August 2018].

   

If a report is available in a pdf format, use the same elements as for an electronic report.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [pdf]
  • Edition.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

MarketLine (2018) Construction Materials in the United Kingdom, June 2018. [pdf] London: MarketLine. Available through: http://advantage.marketline.com [Accessed 15 August 2018]. 

 

4. NICE Guidelines

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title
  • (NICE reference number).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2011) Hip Fracture: Management (NICE Clinical Guideline 124). Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg124 [Accessed 9 August 2016].

 

Conference papers

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Paper title.
  • In: Conference Title.
  • Location,
  • Date(s).
  • Place of Publication (optional):
  • Publisher (optional).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Cidik, M. S., Boyd, D. and Thurairajah, N. (2015) Collaboration in BIM enabled design projects: effects of interoperable information technologies. In: Engineering Project Organization Conference. The University of Edinburgh, Scotland, 24-26 June 2015. Available at: http://researchopen.lsbu.ac.uk/1446/ [Accessed 8 August 2017].

Hockman, J., Southall, C. and Stables, R. (2017) Automatic drum transcription for polyphonic recordings using soft attention mechanisms and convolutional neural networks. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Society for Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR2016) Conference. New York, 7-11 August 2016, pp. 591-597. Available at: https://wp.nyu.edu/ismir2016/wp-content/uploads/sites/2294/2016/07/217_Paper.pdf [Accessed 8 August 2017].

 

Conference proceedings

  • Editorship, ed./eds.
  • (Year)
  • Title of Conference.
  • Location
  • Conference date(s).
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Boultwood, A. and Hindle, S., eds. (2018) Culture, Costume and Dress: Proceedings of the 1st international conference. Birmingham City University, 10-12 May 2017. Birmingham: Gold Word Publishing. Available at: http://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/5701/1/Costume%20Conference%20Proceedings.pdf [Accessed date 15 August 2018]

 

Newspapers

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Article title.
  • Newspaper Title.
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Andrews, K. (2018) A national Windrush Day? Theresa May has some nerve. The Guardian, 18 June. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jun/18/national-windrush-day-theresa-may-generation [Accessed 30 August 2018].

 

Where no author is given, use the title of the newspaper in the text of your work.

The Telegraph (2012) Telegraph Media Group: frequently asked questions, syndication services, 14 January. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/topics/syndication-services/4272574/Telegraph-Media-Group-Frequently-Asked-Questions.html [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

Websites

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Conflict Memory Displacement (2016) Conflict Memory Displacement: Responding to the refugee crisis in the UK and Italy. Available at: http://conflictmemorydisplacement.com/ [Accessed 28 July 2016].

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (2013) Birthplace in England Research Programme (Birthplace). Available at: https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/birthplace [Accessed 25 July 2013].

 

Social media

As social networking websites often require registration and acceptance by other members use the main website name as in the examples below. You may wish to include any discussion you are referring to in an appendix to your work so that it can be viewed. You need to include the date of the publication so that the item can be found. If it is not possible to access the source directly, use "Available through:" instead of "Available at:"

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Post title.
  • Social Networking Site,
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Blagrove, R. (2018) Minimalist shoe walking is as effective as foot strengthening exercises in increasing foot muscle size and strength. Twitter, 16 August. Available at: https://twitter.com/rich_blagrove [Accessed 21 August 2018].

Hughes, A. (2016) Avoid these common pitfalls of gamification. LinkedIn, 5 July. Available through: https://www.linkedin.com [Accessed 15 July 2016].

Robinson, D. (2014) Justin Bieber should try this bridge jump. Facebook, 23 August. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=10152174268986511&id=127722887255489 [Accessed 16 October 2014].

 

Blog posts and comments

1. Blog posts

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Blog entry.
  • Blog Title.
  • [blog]
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Nash, H. (2018) Reconsidering and repurposing the High Street: The Grimsey Review 2. Blogs@BCU: BSBE. [blog] 26 July. Available at: http://blogs.bcu.ac.uk/bsbe/reconsidering-and-repurposing-the-high-street-the-grimsey-review-2/ [Accessed 16 August 2018].

Wall of Sound (2007) Rocking around the clock: teenage dance fads 1955 to 1965. Wall of Sound. [blog] 19 September. Available at: https://wallofsound.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/rocking-around-the-clock-teenage-dance-fads-1955-to-1965/ [Accessed 11 May 2016].

Yorke, J. (2015) The Meriam Ibrahim case: a general overview. Human Rights Blog. [blog] 19 June. Available at: http://jonyorkehumanrights.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/islam-and-death-penalty.html [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

2. Blog comments

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Blog entry: comment.
  • Blog Title.
  • [blog]
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Allen, J. (2015) What is this political space we call ‘immigration’?: comment. openDemocracyUK. [blog] 23 March. Available at: https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/steve-garner/what-is-this-political-space-we-call-%27immigration%27 [Accessed 28 July 2016].

 

Email discussion lists

For personal email correspondence, see other sources.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Message title.
  • Discussion List Title,
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Harris, C. (2012) Are journal rankings damaging logistics as an academic discipline? Logistics Research Network JISCMail List, 18 October. Available through: https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=ind1210&L=logistics-research-network&F=&S=&P=71 [Accessed 26 August 2015].

Solar Designer (1997) Getting around non-executable stack (and fix). Bugtraq Mailing List, 10 August. Available at: http://seclists.org/bugtraq/1997/Aug/63 [Accessed 17 June 2013].

 

Dictionaries and encyclopaedias

If a dictionary or encyclopaedia is available online, there are two options for the reference. If there is no named editorship, use the name of the work as the institutional author. 

1. Dictionaries and encyclopaedias

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title of Dictionary.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2014) Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. London: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/ [Accessed 17 October 2014].

Soegard, M and Dam, R. F., eds. (2013) Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. 2nd edn. Aarhus, Denmark: Interaction Design Foundation. Available at: https://www.interaction-design.org/books/hci.html [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

2. Dictionary and encyclopaedia entries available online e.g. Wikipedia

Remember to carefully evaluate Wikipedia entries by reviewing the sources used, before using them in an academic piece of work.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title of Entry.
  • Place of publication (optional):
  • Publisher. (optional)
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Wikipedia (2015) Local Interconnect Network. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_talker [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

3. Articles in edited dictionaries and encyclopaedias

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Entry title.
  • In: Editorship ed./eds. 
  • Title of Dictionary.
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Hook, K. (2013) Affective computing. In: M. Soegard and R. F. Dam, eds. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. 2nd edn. Aarhus, Denmark: Interaction Design Foundation. Available at: https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/affective-computing [Accessed 29 June 2016].

 

Dissertations and theses

Dissertations and theses are treated in a similar way to printed books but instead of giving information about the publisher you need to give the name of the institution where the dissertation was undertaken and the type of degree for which it was written. If the thesis is available online, the URL and accessed date should also be provided.

  • Authorship
  • (Year) 
  • Title.
  • Level.
  • University.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Huang, J. (2009) Contextualisation of Closed-loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Development in the Chinese Metal Industry. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Nottingham. Available at: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/10785/1/JL_HUANG.pdf [Accessed 3 July 2015].

 

Press releases

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [press release]
  • Day and Month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Birmingham City University (2015) Who Needs Gold and Silver When You've Got...Human Hair? [press release] 26 June. Available at: http://www.bcu.ac.uk/news-events/news/who-needs-gold-and-silver-when-youve-got-human-hair [Accessed 31 July 2015].

Prime Minister’s Office, H.M. Treasury and Department for Communities and Local Government (2015) PM and Chancellor Announce 'One Nation' Plans to Spread Homeownership Across the Country. [press release] 4 July. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pm-and-chancellor-announce-one-nation-plans-to-spread-homeownership-across-the-country [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

Speech transcripts

  • Speaker
  • (Year)
  • Title,
  • Location,
  • Day and month.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Cameron, D. (2015) PM on Plans for a Seven-day NHS, London, 18 May. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-on-plans-for-a-seven-day-nhs [Accessed 31 July 2015].

Lawton, R. (2014) Impact: Lots of Questions Some Answers, Birmingham, 2 April. Keynote address at the Higher Education Academy (HEA) Enhancing holistic healthcare employability for successful student transition seminar series. Available at: http://www.bcu.ac.uk/Download/Asset/318b1f55-3000-e411-83a8-0025b3ab12a4 [Accessed 11 August 2017].