Harvard - Audio, Visual and Multimedia

Audio, Visual and Multimedia Sources

Click below to discover how to reference a wide range of audio, visual and multimedia sources. This guide has been informed by the second edition of Audiovisual Citation: Learning On Screen guidelines for referencing moving image and sound

Audio

Podcasts

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [podcast]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Coley, S. (2017) Dark Coffee; Radio Documentary. [podcast] Available at: https://www.mixcloud.com/bcu/dark-coffee-radio-documentary/ [Accessed 15 August 2017].

Henry, L. (2017) Jack & Hannah Speak to Lenny Henry. [podcast] Interviewed by Jack Hogan and Hannah Jennings, February 2017. Available at https://www.mixcloud.com/jack-hogan2/jack-hannah-speak-to-sir-lenny-henry/ [Accessed 14 August 2017].

Sodajerker (2016) Sodajerker on Songwriting. Episode 90: Alicia Keys. [podcast] Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/sodajerker-on-songwriting/id479679002?mt=2 [Accessed 28 July 2016].

 

Sound recordings

References to sound recordings should appear in a separate discography at the end of your work. You should acknowledge the principal performers and the place and date of the performance where appropriate. Sound recordings are not written/printed material and therefore should not be included in your reference list.

1. Single composer recordings

  • Composer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Performer/conductor credits.
  • [format]
  • Recorded at: place and date of performance (optional).
  • (Catalogue number).

Examples:

Britten, B. (2012) War Requiem. Erin Wall (soprano), Mark Padmore (tenor), Hanno Müller-Brachmann (baritone), City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, CBSO Chorus and Youth Chorus, Andris Nelsons (conductor). [Blu-ray] Recorded at Coventry Cathedral, 30 May 2012. (Arthaus Musik GmbH 108 070).

Vaughan-Williams, R. (2001) Dona Nobis Pacem and Other Works. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Adrian Boult (conductor). [CD] (EMI 574782).

Verdi, G. (2003) Il Trovatore. Eva Marton, Dolora Zajick, Luciano Pavarotti, Sherrill Milnes (soloists), Metropolitan Opera Chorus & Orchestra, James Levine (conductor). [DVD] Recorded at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, 1988. (Edizioni Del Prado 073 064-9).

 

2. Compilation recordings

A disc may have a collection of several recordings made at completely different times and places and/or with completely different performers. This is especially common with historical recordings/re-releases. Each distinct recording should be listed like chapters in an edited collection. You only need to list those mentioned in your work.

Examples:

Messiaen, O. (2007a) Les Offrandes Oubliées. Orchestre de l’Association de Concerts Gabriel Pierné, Roger Désormière (conductor). [Vinyl 78rpm] Recorded in Paris, 8 December 1942. In: Les Rarissimes de Olivier Messiaen [sic]. (EMI France 0946 385275 2 7).

Messiaen, O. (2007b) 'Regard de l’esprit de joie' (No.10) from Vingt Regards sur L'Enfant-Jésus. Yvonne Loriod (piano). [Vinyl 78rpm] Recorded at Studio Albert, Paris, 19 June 1946. In: Les Rarissimes de Olivier Messiaen [sic]. (EMI France 0946 385275 2 7).

 

Notes:

The year given in brackets is that of the disc consulted, not the date of recording, and definitely not the year the work was composed.

Catalogue numbers listed in online library catalogues or online shopping sites (e.g. Amazon) are often their internal reference numbers not the catalogue number of the disc assigned by the record company. Always check the disc itself.

Studies of early recordings will often have additional information, such as the original record company, original catalogue number and matrix numbers (these identify which wax master was used). Sometimes information for all subsequent re-releases will also be given.

 

Music downloads

iTunes is not a database: it is a shop with an associated piece of software that allows you to manage what you have bought in the shop. In the same way that you would not include HMV when referring to a CD you bought there, you do not need to mention iTunes as such. You would use the normal discography details which iTunes provides: right click on the track and select "Get info". However, iTunes does not give you the catalogue numbers, so you may need to do more research on the recording company's website. This applies to any recording where you do not physically have the CD just the mp3/aac (or other format) sound file.

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • 'Title of track'.
  • Performer/conductor credits.
  • In: Album Title.
  • [electronic download]
  • Distribution company.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Victoria, T. L. de (1996) 'Lauda Sion Salvatorem'. Westminster Cathedral Choir, James O’Donnell (conductor). In: Victoria: Missa Dum complerentur. [electronic download] Hyperion Records. Available through: http://www.hyperion-records.co.uk/dw.asp?dc=W6875_66886&vw=dc [Accessed 28 July 2016].

 

Streamed music

Spotify doubles as a shop and a database in that, unlike iTunes, you can listen to complete tracks without buying them.  If you have only accessed the track through live streaming, then the format will be identical again but with an indicator of which service you streamed it from and a different "type of material" indicator at the end. If you can access it via a website, give a URL (and use 'Available at:'); but Spotify has its own interface software so use the format below.

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • 'Title of track'.
  • Performer/conductor credits.
  • In: Album Title.
  • [audio stream]
  • Distribution company.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Victoria, T. L. de (1996) 'Lauda Sion Salvatorem'. Westminster Cathedral Boys Choir, Stephen Cleobury (conductor). In: Allegri: Miserere. [audio stream] Decca Eclipse. Available through: https://www.spotify.com/uk/ [Accessed 17 July 2013].

 

CD/DVD notes

  • Composer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • In: Recording Title.
  • [CD/DVD note]
  • Distribution company.
  • (Catalogue number).

Example:

Berio, L. (1998) The Sequenzas. In: Berio Sequenzas. [CD note] Ensemble Intercontemporain. (Deutsche Grammophon 457038-2).

 

Radio programmes

In the text of your work, radio programmes are always in italics.

1. Radio programmes

You may need to provide details of how you accessed the programme. The example, taken from the BBC Sound Archive, follows the guidance on how to reference archive material in providing details of the collection, the document number, the location of the collection and the archive.

  • Title
  • [radio programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production company,
  • Country of production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Radio station,
  • Duration.

Example:

The Brains Trust [radio programme] Presented by Donald McCullough. BBC, UK, 20 April 1942, BBC Home Service, 11 mins. British Library Sound Archive, T8916W/C3. London: British Library.

 

2. Radio programmes available online

  • Title
  • [radio programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production company,
  • Country of production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Radio station,
  • Duration.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

The Secret Catacombs of Paris [radio programme] Presented by Jonathan Glancy. BBC, UK, 12:30, 24 June 2012, BBC Radio 4, 28 mins. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01b9h73 [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

3. Episodes of a radio series

  • 'Episode title',
  • Series Title
  • [radio programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production company,
  • Country of production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Radio station,
  • Duration.

Example:

'Child murderers', Woman's Hour [radio programme] BBC, UK, 10.00, 8 April 2016, BBC Radio 4, 45 mins.

 

To cite what has been said in the programme use the surname of the speaker. In the example above:

Yardley, E. (2016) 'Child murderers', Woman's Hour [radio programme] BBC, UK, 10.00, 8 April 2016, BBC Radio 4, 45 mins.

 

Performance

Live performances (musical)

1.  Performances

Reference performances you attended.

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • Concert name,
  • location and date (optional).

Example:

O'Connor, S. (1992) Bob Dylan 30th Anniversary Concert. Madison Square Garden, New York, 16 October 1992.

 

2. Programme notes

These are often written by academics who should be identified in the programme. If the author of a note is not identified it is likely to be a more generic note and so less useful. In those cases, you would use the title in place of the author’s name.

The date is the year of the concert and the title is the title of the piece unless the programme note has its own title.

Concert programmes tend not to have any publication information. Where possible, give the concert name or series title, and otherwise give the venue and place (town or city) and date of the concert.

  • Composer
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [programme note]
  • Concert name,
  • location and date (optional).

Example:

Lewis, A. (2006) Penmon Point. [programme note] Soundings Festival, Reid Concert Hall, Edinburgh, 3 February.

 

Live performances (non-musical)

1. Performances

For non-musical performances, the name of the play is always in italics. Include details of the director and the venue and date that you saw the production.

  • Title
  • by Artist
  • (Year)
  • Directed by Director.
  • Location,
  • Date(s).

Example:

Whipping It Up by Steve Thompson (2006) Directed by Terry Johnson. Bush Theatre, London, 18 November – 16 December.

 

Digital Theatre Plus contains videos of live performances of productions, interviews with the cast and creators as well as filmed lectures and study guides. The way you cite these will depend upon the content of the video.

  • Title
  • by Artist
  • (Year)
  • [video]
  • Directed by Director.
  • Location,
  • Date(s).
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Iphigenia in Splott by Gary Owen (2015) [video] Directed by Rachel O’Riordan. North Wall Arts Centre, Oxford. Available through: https://www.digitaltheatreplus.com/ [Accessed 3 August 2017].

 

2. Programme notes

It may be helpful to advise your reader where you have viewed the programme. You may have attended the performance, but the programme could also be held in a physical or online archive/special collection.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Title of production
  • by Artist
  • [format]
  • Directed by Director.
  • Location,
  • Date(s),
  • pp. pages.

Example:

Hall, P. (2008) From the artistic director. Love's Labour’s Lost by William Shakespeare [theatre programme] Directed by Peter Hall. Rose Theatre, Kingston upon Thames, 30 October – 15 November, p. 2.

 

Visual

Paintings and drawings

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year(s) of production)
  • Title.
  • [medium]
  • Dimensions.
  • Gallery where exhibited.

Examples:

Hodgkin, H. (1983-1985) A Small Thing But My Own. [oil on wood] 44.5 x 53.5 cm. Private collection.

Titian (1512-1515) Salome with the Head of John the Baptist. [oil on canvas] 90 x 72 cm. Galleria Doria-Pamphilj, Rome.

 

If you wish to include a facsimile of a painting or a drawing as a figure in your work you will need to reference it as a photograph available online. You will also need to label it and refer to it correctly (see citing tables and figures). Reproducing an artistic work without the permission of the copyright holder is an infringement of copyright. However, you are entitled to reproduce artistic work without permission if it is for the purposes of private research and study.

If you wish to include your own photograph you will need to obtain permission from the gallery or museum to reproduce the image. These details should be given below a figure of the photograph.

Examples:

Figure 1. Hogarth, W. (1753) The Analysis of Beauty, plate II. Reproduced by permission of the British Library.

Figure 2. Del Piombo, S. (1517-1519) The Raising of Lazarus. Reproduced courtesy of the Trustees, the National Gallery, London.

 

If you refer to these in your work, the titles are always in italics, for example:

Photographs

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [medium]
  • Dimensions.
  • © copyright statement.
  • Photo: courtesy collection.

Examples:

Parr, M. (1977) Jubilee Street Party, Elland, Yorkshire. [black and white print] 30.5 x 22.9 cm image on 40.6 x 30.5 cm paper (12 x 9 in. on 16 x 12 in.) © the artist and Magnum Photos. Photo: courtesy Magnum Photos.

Shahn, B. (ca. 1933-1934) Untitled, New York City. [gelatin silver print] 5 7/8 in. x 8 7/8 in. Photo: courtesy Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Boulet, A. (1993) Sniper’s Room – Mostar, Bosnia. [photograph] Copyright © Alexandre Boulet. Photo: courtesy War Photo Ltd.

 

Photographs should contain a copyright statement, either below a figure or in the picture credits or list of illustrations. You should obtain permission of the individual or institution who holds the copyright of the image to reproduce the image.

There is no need to reference a photograph if it is an image that you took and it is not stored anywhere. You may wish to include a copyright symbol both underneath the image with the figure details and also in the reference list/table of illustrations with your surname as the creator and the information as in the examples.

Examples:

Photographs by Herb Ritts ©Herb Ritts Foundation.

Gregory, J. (2001) Eiffel Tower, Paris. ©courtesy of the artist and the Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco.

All photographs are copyright Paul Popper Ltd.

Images ©individual authors.

 

If you refer to photographs in in your text, the titles are always in italics, for example:

Photographs available online

For photographs as reproductions of artistic works (e.g. paintings, posters, drawings or sculptures) available on the internet, take the reader to where the image was viewed online.

If a photograph you have taken is held on a website, you would need to reference yourself as the creator along with the year and title of the image and the URL of the website and the date accessed.

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Holley, P. (2008) Gallery of Old Soda. Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paxtonholley/2194768387/in/pool-47078012@N00/ [Accessed 17 June 2013].

Van Vechten, C. (1934) Portrait of Man Ray, Paris. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/van/item/2004663496/ [Accessed 4 October 2009].

If you wish to include a photograph as a figure in your document you should always ensure that you have the necessary permissions. Reproducing an artistic work without the permission of the copyright holder is an infringement of copyright. If you take a photograph of a painting in a modern art gallery, use of the photograph on the web is likely to be an infringement of copyright. However, not all modern art is still in copyright. Legislation protects the work for the life of the author plus 70 years. For example, Edvard Munch and Wassily Kandinsky both died in 1944 so copyright in their works has expired. Also, some art galleries in their terms and conditions permit photographs for private, non-commercial use for which use on a non-commercial blog would not be a breach of this condition. The Intellectual Property Office has published advice on Digital Images, Photographs and the Internet as a Copyright Notice here.

You are entitled to reproduce artistic work without permission if it is for the purposes of private research and study. One approach to reducing the risk of breaching copyright is to use images which hold a Creative Commons licence which allows reuse as long as the image creator is acknowledged. For example, many Flickr users have chosen to provide their images under the Flickr Creative Commons licence.

Medical images (including anonymous patient scans)

  • Image creator
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Taylor, T. (2012) Respiratory System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/respiratory. [Accessed 30 July 2014].

Visible Body (2018) Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation: The routes and function of blood flow. Available at: https://www.visiblebody.com/learn/circulatory/circulatory-pulmonary-systemic-circulation [Accessed 12 December 2018].

 

Examples of images from subscription atlases:

Anatomy.TV (2018) Anatomy.TV, Powered by Primal Pictures. Available through: https://www.anatomy.tv/new_home.aspx  [Accessed 12 December 2018].

 

If you wish to include an image from one of these sources, the terms and conditions of the University’s licence (for subscription products) or the terms and conditions (permissions) on the website mean that you must label the image and refer to it correctly (see citing tables and figures). Reproducing an image without the permission of the copyright holder is an infringement of copyright. However, you are entitled to reproduce an image without permission if it is for the purposes of private research and study as long as you acknowledge the source.

In-text:

If you need to reference an individual patient's scan, the advice from the Department of Radiography is that you will need to anonymize the image to protect the individual but you will also need to protect the Trust as well. Each image should be regarded as a publication in its own right.

In the text of your work you would include as a citation for example (Local Trust X, 2016) i.e. the year the image was produced.

For your reference list this would appear as:

Local Trust X (2016) 80kV Chest [Acquired from Local Trust X on 28th Nov 2017].

 

If you have images from the same year then you should use letters to differentiate them, i.e. 2017a, 2017b, 2017c etc.

If you do identify the Trust from an image or document that is not in the public domain, this will be deemed a technical fail and your work will be awarded a 1% nominal mark in line with the advice on maintaining confidentiality.

Illustrations and posters

1. Works that were created for publication or not exhibited:

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [for Publication] (optional)
  • [medium]
  • Dimensions (optional).
  • Location.
  • Copyright statement (optional).

Example of work created for publication:

Downton, D. (2004-2005) The Art of Couture - Linda Evangelista [for V Magazine, 32, Winter]. [illustration, gouache and ink on paper]. Artist's collection. © David Downton.

 

Example of work not created for publication and not exhibited:

Codagnone, A. (1993) Poster for ACT UP, New York. [poster] 11 x 8.5 in (27.9 x 21.6 cm). Artist's collection. Courtesy the artist.

 

2. Works that were created for an exhibition:

  • Artist(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [medium]
  • Exhibited at Location,
  • Dates(s).
  • Dimensions (optional).
  • Location.
  • Copyright statement (optional).

Example:

Bell, V., Etchells, F., Fry, R. and Grant, D. (1912) Second Post-impressionist Exhibition. [poster] Exhibited at Grafton Galleries, London, 5 October - 31 December. 119.4 x 93.8 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

 

3. Exhibited works which appeared in a book or journal (reference the book/journal):

Examples:

Abdelhalim, I. A. (2004) Front north-east elevation, Imam Mohamed ibn Saud Mosque, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1998. [illustration] In: P. Richardson, New Sacred Architecture. London: Laurence King, p. 155.

Herzog & de Meuron (2017) Floor plans of Elbphilharmonie. [illustration] In: C. Jencks, Symphony of Pomo. Architectural Review, 1440, pp. 29-31.

 

You will find that any published work will have had to obtain permission of the illustrator, gallery or museum to reproduce the image. These details should be given either below a figure or in a separate list of picture credits.

Example:

Source: Museum fur Gestaltung Zurich, Poster collection. ©ZHDK.

 

If you refer to illustrations or posters in your work, the titles are always in italics, for example:

Exhibitions

Exhibitions are a primary way of exploring themes and sharing experiences in art and design. They are held in specific locations at specific times and have specific titles. Some exhibitions demonstrate the work of one artist while others are curated and include the work of several artists. Refer to the title of the exhibition in italics in the text of your work.

  • Title
  • (Year)
  • [exhibition]
  • Curated by Curator (optional).
  • Location,
  • Date(s). 

Examples:

The Cheapside Hoard: London's lost jewels (2013-2014) [exhibition] Curated by Hazel Forsyth. Museum of London, 10 October – 27 April.

Shakespeare in South Asia (2017) [exhibition] Curated by Islam Issa. Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Stratford-upon-Avon, 26 May – 8 September.

Zoe Robertson: FlockOmania (2015) [exhibition] Lanchester Gallery, Coventry University, 19 January – 19 February.

 

Refer to the title of the exhibition in italics in the text of your work, for example:

Installations

You need to credit the artist, the title of the installation, the venue and the date that it was viewed. Photographs will have been taken of the installation but it is the artist of the work that you need to cite and the venue that displayed the work. In the text of your work you will need to refer to the installation in italics.

  • Artist(s) or Designer(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [installation]
  • Location,
  • Date(s).

Examples:

Dupre, F. (2011) Autre Mers (Other Seas). [installation] Women's Library, London Metropolitan University, London, 26 May - 1 October.

Hatoum, M. (2010-2011) Keeping It Real: An exhibition in 4 acts. Act 3: Current disturbance. [installation] Whitechapel Gallery, London, 17 December - 6 March.

 

For installations that are part of a curated collection:

  • Artist(s) or Designer(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [installation]
  • In: Exhibition Title.
  • Curated by Curator (optional).
  • Location,
  • Date(s).

Example:

Parker, M. (2016) The imitation archive. [installation] In: New Art West Midlands 2016. Curated by Sonia Boyce, John Stezaker and Katharine Stout. Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Waterhall Gallery, Birmingham, 12 February - 15 May.

 

In the text of your work you will need to refer to the installation in italics, for example:

Sculptures

You need to credit the artist, the title of the sculpture, the materials and the location. Photographs will have been taken of the sculpture but it is the artist of the work that you need to cite and the sculpture's location.

  • Artist
  • (Year(s) of production)
  • Title.
  • [medium]
  • Dimensions.
  • Location.

Examples:

Ellis, J. (2010) Black Pool, White Water. [Carrara marble and Butler's Grove limestone] 80 x 40 x 30 cm. Garda Memorial Garden, Dublin.

Donatello (1445-1450) Gattemelata. [bronze] Height 3.4 m. Piazza del Santo, Padua.

 

For sculptures that were previously part of an exhibition:

  • Artist(s) or Designer(s)
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [sculpture]
  • In: Exhibition Title.
  • Curated by Curator (optional).
  • Location,
  • Date(s).

Examples:

Tool, E. (2004) 393. [sculpture] In: Ehren Tool: Production or destruction. Exhibited at Los Angeles Craft and Folk Art Museum, 26 May – 9 September.

 

Maps

1. Printed maps

  • Map maker
  • (Year)
  • Title,
  • Sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.

Example:

Ordnance Survey (2013) Wolverhampton and Dudley, Sheet 219, 1:25,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

 

2. Online maps

  • Map maker
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

EDINA Historic Digimap Service (2013) Ancient Roam. Available through: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/digimap/home [Accessed 22 July 2013].

Google Earth (2010) Locations of the Wind Observations Across Dublin City. Available through: http://www.google.com/earth/index.html [Accessed 16 July 2013].

 

In-text:

Moving Image

Films

Films, videos and broadcasts are the co-operative product of teams of people. No author or creator is therefore included in the reference. In the references, you may decide to include films as a separate list. Please be guided by your Assessment Brief.

  • Title
  • [feature film]
  • Directed by Director.
  • Production Company,
  • Country of Production,
  • Year.
  • Duration.

Example:

Bram Stoker's Dracula [feature film] Directed by Francis Ford Coppola. Columbia Tristar/American Zoetrope/Osiris, USA, 1992. 120 mins.

 

For a documentary or extra feature from a DVD of a feature film:

'Il Maestro: Ennio Morricone and The Good, The Bad and The Ugly', The Good, The Bad and The Ugly [documentary extra, Blu-ray] Contributor Jon Burlingame. PEA/Arturo Gonzalez Producciones/Constantin Film Produktion, Italy/Spain/Germany, 1966. 8 mins. [20th Century Fox, 1581307000, 2009].

'The Music of The Hours', The Hours [documentary extra, DVD] Directed by Stephen Daldry. Paramount/Miramax/Scott Rudin, USA/UK, 2002. 6 mins. [Walt Disney Studios, B000087JHY, 2003].

 

In-text, titles of films are always in italics, for example:

Television programmes

Television programmes are the co-operative product of teams of people. No author or creator is therefore included in the reference. In the text of your work television programmes are always in italics. In the references, you may decide to include programmes in a separate list. Please be guided by your Assessment Brief.

1. Television programmes

  • Title
  • [television programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production Company,
  • Country of Production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Television station,
  • Duration.

Example:

Exposure: The other side of Jimmy Savile [television programme] ITV, UK, 23:10, 3 October 2012, ITV, 60 mins.

 

In the text of your document the names of television programmes are always in italics:

2. Individual episodes

  • 'Episode title',
  • Series Title
  • [television programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production Company,
  • Country of Production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Television station,
  • Duration.

Example:

‘The Suffolk Strangler’, Killers Behind Bars: The untold story [television programme] Produced and directed by Rory Wheeler. Popkorn Production, UK, 20:00, 6 February 2013, Channel 5, 60 mins.

 

To cite what has been said in the programme use the surname of the speaker:

In your reference list::

Wilson, D. (2013) ‘The Suffolk Strangler’, Killers Behind Bars: The untold story [television programme] Produced and directed by Rory Wheeler. Popkorn Production, UK, 20:00, 6 February 2013, Channel 5, 60 mins.

 

3. Television series available online

  • Title
  • [television programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production Company,
  • Country of Production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Television station,
  • Duration.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Cathy Come Home [television programme] Directed by Ken Loach. BBC, UK, 26 November 2006, BBC4, 80 mins. Available through: http://diglib4.uce.ac.uk/webgate/dlib/templates/interface/uceel/ShowDirectURL.asp?item_id=68869&rep_type=WMV&appl=D [Accessed 7 June 2013].

 

In the text of your document the names of television programmes are always in italics:

4. Extract of television series available online

  • 'Extract title',
  • Programme Title
  • [television programme]
  • Production credit.
  • Production company,
  • Country of production,
  • Transmission (time and) date,
  • Television station,
  • Duration.
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

'Emergency provisions', The War Game [television programme extract] Directed by Peter Watkins. BBC, UK, 31 July 1985, BBC2, 3 mins 31 secs. Available at: http://www.screenonline.org.uk/media/stream.jsp?id=738876[Accessed 28 July 2016].

'Birmingham students recreate WW1 trenches in paper', BBC Midlands Today [television programme extract] BBC, UK, 17 February 2014, BBC1, 2 mins 3 secs. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-26228052 [Accessed 31 July 2015].

 

In the text of your document the names of television programmes are always in italics:

Vodcasts

A vodcast is a video recording uploaded to the internet on an official site (i.e. not a streamed video). Cite the author/composer/creator of the comments/ideas.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [vodcast]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Lawton, R. (2014) Impact: Lots of questions, some answers. [vodcast] Keynote speech, Enhancing holistic healthcare employability for successful student transition seminar, Birmingham City University, 2 April. Available at: http://www.bcu.ac.uk/nursing-and-midwifery/about-us/news-and-events/past-events/employability-how-do-we-measure-its-success [Accessed 16 March 2018].

 

Educational videos

Educational videos are often made available to you upon subscription and are therefore only available through the subscription site which you should acknowledge.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [video]
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

Bates’ Visual Guide to Physical Examination (2015) Low Back Pain (OSCE9). [video] Available through: http://www.batesvisualguide.com [Accessed 3 August 2017].

 

Digital Theatre Plus contains videos of live performances of productions, interviews with the cast and creators as well as filmed lectures and study guides. The way you cite these will depend upon the content of the video. Follow these examples:

Carnicke, S. M. (2016) Active Analysis for Twenty-first Century Actors. [video] Available through: https://www.digitaltheatreplus.com/ [Accessed 3 August 2017].

Hunter, K. (2016) Shakespeare for Inclusive Audiences. [video] Interviewed by Michael Dobson. Available through: https://www.digitaltheatreplus.com/ [Accessed 3 August 2017].

 

Streamed videos

Assuming that the material you have found has academic credibility, you need to find the name of the contributor or the name of the person/organization posting the video and the year the video was posted. It is important to check whether the video you are referencing is the official one.

  • Authorship
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [video]
  • Place presented (optional).
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Institute of Medicine (2012) Health Literacy: A prescription to end confusion, extended video. [video] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBy3I7YKCQQ [Accessed 21 July 2014].

Webber, N. and Vaughan, S. (2015) Archivist vs. Game Designers? [video] Research Libraries UK Discovering Collections Discovering Communities Conference. The Lowry, Salford Quays, 12-14 October 2015. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJOPFuz7-L8 [Accessed 31 May 2016].

Yuzna, B. (2015) ScratchTVBCU Brian Yuzna Interview. [video] Interviewed by Chrissy Hall, 4 November. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhUWxkGEdNg&list=PLpQuPYCyuS5pgNidr4yx-CZ2hY5i8PqDn&index=12 [Accessed 31 May 2016].

 

Multimedia

Video games

In the text of your work video games are always in italics.

  • Creator
  • (Year)
  • Title.
  • [game, platform]
  • Publisher,
  • Country of publication
  • (Product code).

Example:

Ubisoft (2010) Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood [game, Xbox 360] Ubisoft Montreal, Canada (EAN 300034430).

 

Computer software

  • Institution
  • (Year)
  • (Version).
  • [computer software]
  • Location.

Or

  • Institution
  • (Year)
  • (Version).
  • [computer software]
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Examples:

Dassault Systèmes (2012) Abaqus (6.12-1). [computer software] Providence, RI.

Dassault Systèmes (2012) Abaqus (6.12-1). [computer software] Available through: https://www.3ds.com/products-services/simulia/products/abaqus/latest-release/ [Accessed 26 January 2018].

 

Mobile apps

  • Creator
  • (Year)
  • Title
  • (Version).
  • [app, operating system/platform]
  • Available at/through: URL
  • [Accessed date].

Example:

King.com (2018) Candy Crush Jelly Saga (1.58.9). [app, Apple iOS] Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/app/candy-crush-jelly-saga/id1047246341?mt=8 [Accessed 26 January 2018].

 

 

A note about copyright of images

If you wish to include a facsimile of a painting, illustration etc. as a figure in your work you will need to reference it as a photograph available online. You will also need to label it and refer to it correctly. You are only entitled to reproduce artistic work without permission if it is for the purposes of private research and study.

One approach to reducing the risk of breaching copyright is to use images which hold a Creative Commons licence which allows reuse as long as the image creator is acknowledged. For example, many Flickr users have chosen to provide their images under the Flickr Creative Commons licence.

The Intellectual Property Office has published advice on Digital Images, Photographs and the Internet as a Copyright Notice here.