Accredited by both the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), our Mechanical Engineering BEng (Hons)/MEng degree is a highly respected course that will equip you with a range of advanced analytical and design skills, as well as strategic management and leadership capabilities.
This course fully supports the programme aims of UK-SPEC (UK Standard for Professional Engineering Competence), which means you’ll be equipped with the academic and practical skills that employers are keen to find.
You will also be able to progress seamlessly from BEng to a Master’s level award, if you wish to continue your studies for a fourth year.
If you’re looking to start this course in 2017, it's important to know that the content and structure are undergoing a substantial review and are likely to be different to what is outlined here. We’ll publish more detailed information about the changes over the next few months. If you’re starting in 2016, the course content/structure won’t be affected by the review.
Our graduates are shaping the world, achieving things they never imagined.
Katja Wotton Srbljanin gives you her top tips on how to get ahead in Mechanical Engineering and succeed in your chosen career.
The course is structured so that its themes are directly relevant to industry’s current and expected future needs.
This programme is highly regarded because it builds on the Government’s STEM agenda and provides a real depth and breadth for students, which means when you finish your studies, you’ll have the intellectual, technical and personal qualities necessary that will make you a highly employable graduate in a sector that has a skills shortage.
You’ll work on the latest industry-standard computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and outstanding facilities for engine testing, rapid prototyping, engine emissions testing, and thermodynamics, alongside your academic studies, giving you a fully rounded experience.
Module themes cover areas such as mathematical analysis, applied mechanics, engineering design and practice, applied thermodynamics, environmental studies and thermofluid analysis, and power and energy systems.
You’ll be based at Millennium Point at the City Centre Campus where you will explore design management and assurance, taking into consideration design for usability, manufacturability and recycling, undertake a detailed study of power transmission and generation systems, before considering environmental impact, its management and associated legislation.
Your studies will also see you investigating stress analysis, finite element analysis and materials, together with the principles of the mechanics of solids.
You can opt for an industrial placement year too, which gives you an invaluable opportunity to hone your expertise, try out a potential career path and get relevant workplace experience that is valued by so many employers.
You also have the chance to get involved with the prestigious Formula Student event, which will help to boost your CV and get you noticed by world-class companies such as Jaguar Land Rover and GKN, who use the occasion to find their engineers of the future.
You’ll receive the support of expert staff, who have a wide range of academic, research and industrial experience in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, manufacturing and electrical engineering.
“I enjoyed the modules and the lectures because of the quality and commitment of the tutors. The practical nature of the course prepares students well for their future careers.” Kenneth Oguegbu
Visit our School site for more student work and extra information.
Our students have gone on to work with companies such as:
We accept a range of qualifications, the most popular of which are detailed below.
At the point of application, you must have GCSE at Grade C or above in English Language and Mathematics. Equivalent qualifications will be accepted.
In addition you must attain at least a grade C in A Level Mathematics or equivalent. Please see below for specific information about this requirement.
280 UCAS tariff points from A Level with a minimum of 2 A Levels
|UK Qualification||Requirements 2015/16|
|GCE A Level/ AS Level||BBC at A Level or 280 UCAS tariff points from A Level with a minimum of 2 A Levels and including A Level Maths at grade C or above.|
|Access to Higher Education Diploma||In Engineering - Pass overall with 60 credits, 45 at Level 3 and 15 at Level 2, including with a minimum of 12 credits at Merit or Distinction with 9 credits of these credits from Mathematics units and 3 credits in Science units.|
|BTEC National Diploma (12-units not including early years)||D*D* or combined with other level 3 qualifications to achieve a minimum total of 280 UCAS points. A Distinction in Mathematics for Technicians unit or a Pass in Further Mathematics for Technicians unit.|
|BTEC Extended Diploma (18-units not including early years)||DMM - 280 UCAS points. A Distinction in Mathematics for Technicians unit or a Pass in Further Mathematics for Technicians unit.|
|BTEC Subsidiary Diploma/ National Award (6-units not including early years)||Combined with other level 3 qualifications to achieve a minimum total of 280 UCAS points. In addition, you will require a grade C in AS Mathematics or equivalent such as a Distinction in Mathematics for Technicians unit or a Pass in Further Mathematics for Technicians unit.|
|International Baccalaureate Diploma||30 points overall (minimum grade 5 in Higher Level Mathematics)|
|Irish Leaving Certificate||280 UCAS points - Higher Levels. Higher Level Mathematics required|
|Scottish Higher/ Advanced Higher||280 UCAS points with Mathematics at Advanced Higher or equivalent. Grades BBC.|
|Welsh Baccalaureate (core plus options)||120 tariff points combined with other level 3 qualifications to achieve a minimum total of 280 UCAS points. Plus an AS Maths at grade C or above (or equivalent).|
|If you have a qualification that is not listed in the table please refer to our full entry requirements on UCAS.
Further guidance on tariff points can be found on the UCAS website.
|EU/Non-EU (International) Qualifications||Requirements 2015/16|
|IELTS||6.0 overall with 5.5 minimum in all bands|
|International Baccalaureate Diploma (or equivalent, including internationally accredited Foundation courses).||30 points (minimum grade 5 in Higher Level Mathematics)
Country-specific entry requirements and qualifications.
International students who cannot meet the direct entry requirements can begin their degree studies at Birmingham City University International College (BCUIC).
This course is also available as a four year degree with foundation entry.
The current entry point being offered for this course part-time is year 3 of 5.
From A Level with a minimum of 2 A Levels
If you are a full-time undergraduate applicant for the 2016/17 year, and show particular potential, we may be able to make you an unconditional offer if you make us first choice and satisfy certain criteria.
To be considered you must hold, or be predicted to achieve:
300 tariff points or above from three A levels (equivalent to grades BBB or above)
be predicted DDM profile at BTEC level
You will also be required to attend an interview.
If you're considering applying for this course to start in September 2017 onwards, it's important to know that the UCAS tariff system is changing.
UCAS tariff points – the points system most universities use to compare different qualifications – will be introducing a new system on how points are calculated.
|BEng/MEng||Sep 2016||FT||4 years||£9,000 per year||Apply via UCAS|
|BEng/MEng||Sep 2016||SW||5 years||£9,000 per year||Apply via UCAS|
|BEng/MEng||Sep 2016||PT||7 years||£1,125 per 15-credit module|
If you're unable to use the online form for any reason, you can complete our PDF application form instead.
|BEng/MEng||Sep 2016||FT||4 years||£12,000 per year||Apply via UCAS|
The University reserves the right to increase fees broadly in line with increases in inflation, or to reflect changes in government funding policies or changes agreed by Parliament.
There are no compulsory additional costs or charges associated with studying on this course. While you may choose to purchase personal copies of text books, all our key text books are available from our library or online (subject to normal library loan and online access arrangements). If your course includes a residential study session, the accommodation costs for this are already included in your course fee.
Based on the past experience of our students, you might find it helpful to set aside about £50 for each year of your studies for stationery and study materials. All our students are provided with 100 free pages of printing each year to a maximum total value of £15.
UK and EU students applying for most undergraduate degree courses in the UK will need to apply through UCAS.
The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) is a UK organisation responsible for managing applications to university and college.
There are three ways to apply:
You will need to complete our International Application Form and submit it together with scan copies of your original academic transcripts and certificates.
Our in-country representatives can help you make your application and apply for a visa. They can also offer advice on travel, living in the UK and studying abroad.
If you are applying for an undergraduate degree or a Higher National Diploma (HND), you can apply through the UK’s Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS).
You can request a printed form from your school or nearest British Council office. You will be charged for applying through UCAS. Birmingham City University’s UCAS code is B25 BCITY.
Your personal statement is a highly important part of your application. It gives you a crucial opportunity to say why you’re applying and why the institution should accept you.
Here are the key areas you’ll need to address:
Why does this course appeal? What areas are of particular interest?
If you have a specific career in mind, say how your chosen course will help you pursue this goal.
Mention any work that is relevant to your subject, highlighting the skills and experience gained.
Highlight skills gained at school/college, eg summer schools or mentoring activities.
eg Duke of Edinburgh Award, Young Enterprise scheme.
You should also mention your future plans – if you’re planning to take a year out, don't forget to give your reasons. Talk about any subjects you’re studying that don’t have a formal assessment and any sponsorships or placements you’ve applied for. And don't be scared to add in details about your social, sports or leisure interests.
Get more information on writing personal statements.
Search our Frequently Asked Questions for a range of information about our courses and studying here.
We offer further information on possible undergraduate financial support. This includes the type of loans, grants and scholarships available both from the government and from Birmingham City University.
Your first year focuses on five modules: design methods, digital design, mathematics and dynamics, thermodynamics, materials and processes and mathematics and mechanics.
Mathematics and Dynamics
In this module, you’ll be introduced to the basics of engineering thermodynamics, including thermodynamic properties and processes, the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, standard engine and turbine cycles and modes of heat transfer.
Materials and Processes
You’ll look at the classification of materials, and the structure, characteristics and properties of each class.
What are materials for? You will explore how to test and measure mechanical properties, and examine the reasons for and prevention of material failure. The module looks at the role of processing in design and the classification of processes.
You will learn the primary processing methods for metals, polymers, ceramics and composites and develop a strong understanding of rapid prototyping, joining methods, and the design-led methodology of materials and process selection.
Finally, you will study the economic and environmental aspects of materials and process.
Mathematics and Mechanics
In year two you’ll study a further five modules, all of which are designed to build on your knowledge and key skills needed for a career such as design engineering.
These are: sustainable design and manufacture, mechanics and dynamics, environmental studies thermofluids, management of engineering and technology innovation, and numerical analysis.
Sustainable Design and Manufacture
You’ll look at materials and manufacture in design, examining materials and process selection for performance, economic and environmental criteria. You will learn about material strengthening techniques – including working, heat treatments, and alloying - as well as the recycling of materials.
The module will also examine CAD/CAM systems to facilitate manufacturing simulation and analysis, leading on to the application of CNC, including milling, turning and robotics.
Mechanics and Dynamics
On this module you’ll consider the structural analysis of beams and cylinders, torsion and impact loading; failure of materials including plastic deformation, fracture mechanics and fatigue; finite element analysis covering virtual work, linear and non-linear elements; and computer based FEA. You’ll also build on your knowledge of vibration, examining beams and balancing of shafts.
Environmental Studies and Thermodynamics
You’ll consider the environmental issues that affect engineering and industry, including the associated policies and legislation. You’ll investigate environmental management and sustainability, environmental performance, life-cycle analysis and design for environment methodologies.
You’ll look at thermofluid analysis and how it is related to industrial applications, plus practical power cycles for energy generation, applied heat transfer and fluid flow related to power loss in pipes, power generation via water turbines, and measurement aspects of both fluid pressure and flow rates.
Management of Engineering Technology Innovation
This module will equip you with an understanding of market-led innovation, planning, management and strategy development in an engineering enterprise; pursuing wealth creation in a changing competitive environment, along with the knowledge required to devise and implement necessary changes in the business when required.
You’ll look at the advanced application of mathematics to solving practical problems, and build upon your first year studies of communicating mathematics effectively. You’ll build on your knowledge of the mathematical techniques required in the solution of practical engineering problems.
In the third year you’ll move onto a project, which will give you the opportunity to undertake detailed, independent research in an area that interests you.
You’ll also study design management, dynamics and control, and advanced engineering analysis.
You’ll have the opportunity to study a subject that is of real interest to you, enabling you to acquire in-depth knowledge and skills in an area of interest relevant to your course title.
Activities include generating a proposal, researching text and electronic sources, creating and implementing solutions, and an artefact if applicable, analysing results and reporting on outcomes.
You’ll consider design optimisation utilising tools such as value engineering, Six-sigma, FMEA, computer-based design, synthesis and analysis. The module also covers design project management and planning, reviews and appraisals, information systems, product data models, data flow and exchange.
You’ll also investigate management and organisational behaviour, design teams, professionalism and ethics, legal aspects and product liability, while also gaining an overview of PDMS, PLM and KBE systems.
Advanced Engineering Analysis 1
This module will equip you with an understanding of the development of behaviour models for FEA, analysis of results and techniques, and methods for checking results.
You will explore applications to 2D/3D static stress problems, thermal analysis and natural frequency analysis, and forced vibration. You’ll also consider axisymmetric components, Castigliano’s theorem, Euler and Rankine’s theory of struts, and residual stress definition and measurement.
Power and Energy Systems 1
In this module, you’ll examine power and energy relating to engineering and industry, including energy conversion and energy management. You’ll also investigate a range of energy management topics such as total energy, auditing, monitoring, renewables and economics. The module also considers turbines, boilers/combustion and refrigeration/heat pumps.
Dynamics and Control
Advanced Engineering Analysis 2
Power and Energy Systems 2
To attain your MEng qualification, you’ll undertake a Master's group project, working with your fellow students to complete an advanced-level project.
You’ll also study thermofluids, finite elements analysis, knowledge-based engineering, advanced stress analysis, international logistics systems management, and strategic planning for international supply chains.
Master's Group Project
The project simulates typical graduate workplace tasks that require in-depth knowledge and skills in a course specific area. You’ll work as a team member, which gives you the opportunity to demonstrate technical and general employability in preparation for career progression.
This module meets the demands of industry to produce graduates that have a rigorous grounding in industrial standard design, analysis and simulation capability.
Finite Elements Analysis
Industry needs mechanical engineers who are competent and skilled in the use of advanced computer modelling and simulation techniques and this module will give you an in-depth understanding of these.
This aims to provide you with a rigorous grounding in industrial standard simulation tools. It responds to the needs of industry and specifically meets the demands of today’s employers by ensuring that you can skilfully use advanced computer modelling and simulation techniques. You’ll study design, simulation and analysis experiences.
International Logistics Systems Management
You’ll gain an in-depth understanding of the concept of reconfiguration of international logistics systems in a global context. You’ll study transport, warehouse and product identification systems management, as well as risk management.
Operations and Process Management
You’ll consider in detail the effect of increasing competitive demand on all parts of the supply chain, how companies can gain competitive advantage by aligning both their internal and external supply chains to enhance customer satisfaction, product profitability, customer-supplier partnerships, manufacturing and distribution efficiencies.
Our course is structured in a way that is directly relevant to industry’s current and expected future needs and we think it’s important that you are assessed in a number of different ways during your studies. These will include continuous assessment, in-class tests, examinations, laboratory exercises and project work.
Approximately 29 per cent% of your studies will be assessed by formal examination, 65 per cent will be via coursework, and 6 per cent through practical work in your first year.
This course attracts a high number of students who are already in employment and who want to study on a part-time basis. If you are planning to do this, it will take you five years to complete.
The course comprises four themes:
Design covers design management and assurance through to designing for usability, manufacturability, and, ultimately, for recycling at end-of-life.
Energy and Environmental includes the detailed study of power transmission and generation systems followed by an understanding of the environmental impact, its management and the associated legislation that arises from the use of such systems.
Applied Mechanics provides an in-depth knowledge of stress analysis, finite element analysis and materials, together with the principles of the mechanics of solids.
Project provides an underpinning knowledge base for the other themes and an individual project.
|36||Time in lectures, seminars and similar||MidnightBlue|
|64||Time in independent study||RoyalBlue|
Kenneth Oguegbu’s academic achievements are pretty impressive. He achieved some excellent marks in his engineering degree, including a rare 86% in Maths Analysis – a module that often has even the brightest students racking their brains. But his contribution to engineering student life goes way beyond his studies…
Kenneth joined us armed with a National Diploma in Engineering from Nigeria’s Petroleum Training Institute – and an infectious enthusiasm for getting involved. “Warmth of character and unassuming manner are the first things that greet you on meeting Kenneth. This, coupled with his mature attitude, won over everyone he met,” says his Course Director, Dr David Ashman.
This course is accredited by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE). This means the course satisfies academic requirements towards, and allow graduates to apply for, Chartered Engineer status (CEng).
The BEng course meets the academic requirements towards, and allow graduates to apply for, Chartered Engineer status (CEng) with the IMechE. The course is also CEng accredited by the IET which will also allow you to apply for Chartered Engineer status (when presented with an accredited Master’s) with this organisation as well.
The programme also meets the educational requirements for registration as an Incorporated Engineer.
You will have all the benefits of accreditation which come with the BEng degree. In addition, at the appropriate time, an application for accreditation (for the MEng/Master’s level of the course) will be submitted with the IET. Approval will give all graduates of the course accreditation, fulfilling all the educational requirements for Chartered Engineer status with the IET.
This programme is also CEng accredited by the the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) and fulfils the educational requirements for Chartered Engineer when presented with an accredited MSc. In addition, the programme meets the educational requirements for registration as an Incorporated Engineer.
These independent reviews show what our students really think:
"Uni life in BCU is tough of course when it comes to the actual degree side of things. But it is not 24/7 every single term which really does give you chance during a lot of weeks to do your own thing and improve every aspect of yourself. Not just intellect! Being in Birmingham you really do have the opportunity to undertake a ridiculously wide range of activities and this is reflected in the students union and societies. Although I do have to say with BCU being split up in the city, Most things happen in the north and so being from the south as I was in the first year makes it a lot more difficult to take full advantage. My one piece of advice would be, make sure you have a family or friend you can get away to during uni. Sometimes all you need is a week away!"
If you are interested in undertaking part of your studies abroad, the Erasmus scheme may be of interest to you. It allows higher education students to study for part of their degree in another European country.
It is open to undergraduates in their second year (or above) and offers a unique opportunity to enhance your CV and experience new cultures. If you study with us you will have access to an Erasmus co-ordinator, who can provide information about which institutions we have links with.
You could enrol on one of our highly regarded MSc engineering programmes once you have completed your BEng (Hons) degree, if you want to go down an alternative, yet related, route of study. We also offer a range of research (PhD) postgraduate engineering programmes that are suitable for graduates of this course. Details can be found on the postgraduate section of the website.
You also have the chance to take part in the Formula Student event, in which you and your team mates will get the opportunity to design and build your own 'BCU Racing' IMechE Formula Student car as part of a year-long project, and compete against 150 international universities over four days at the world-famous Silverstone racing track.
The event attracts world-class companies such as Jaguar Land Rover and GKN, who use the event to find their engineers of the future.
Student Anders Nielsen, who was the powertrain design leader in the 2014 Formula Student event, said: “I was really excited when I saw the car on the ground, it was just amazing.”
Karolis Griska, driver in the 2014 BCU Racing team, said: “I would say I’ve gained a lot of experience in every area: design and teamwork.”
Highest marks ever seen
You’d think that working full-time alongside your degree might limit your achievements. Not for Mark Digby. This committed mature student picked up some remarkable results - including the highest mark we’ve ever seen in his final year modules!
Mark’s the first to admit it wasn’t easy. “I enjoyed my course,” he says, but he’s realistic about the amount of work involved. “It was very difficult as a part-time student. A long day at uni, plus normal work and assignments at weekends make it a challenge. But,” he concludes, “it was worth it in the end.”
Mark is still busy at Mercedes Benz HighPerformanceEngines, the company who supported him through his studies. He’s taking a well-earned year out from his studies to spend his new found spare time on his other passion – refurbishing classic cars. But we’re pretty sure higher academic pursuits are just around the corner…….
Some of our students choose to base their final year project on the Formula Student module or volunteer to do it to boost their employability.
In this project, you get the opportunity to design and build your own 'BCU Racing' IMechE Formula Student car as part of a year-long project, and compete against 150 international universities over four days at the world-famous Silverstone racing track.
There is a high demand for mechanical engineering graduates with the skills and knowledge provided by this course.
According to the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), there is a skills crisis in the UK engineering and technology sectors, with 87,000 more engineers needed each year for the next 10 years alone.
Combining a rigorous academic curriculum with solid industrial experience means this course produces graduates who have the intellectual, technical and personal qualities necessary for a thriving career in engineering.
Typical routes of employment for our graduates include: performance and development engineering, design engineering, and postgraduate research.
Katja Srbljanin was working for world-renowned company Rolls-Royce when they sponsored her to study a Mechanical Engineering course. After completing her dissertation, she won the IMechE Project Award at our 2015 student awards ceremony, and now works as Technical Communications Engineer for Siemens.
We aim to have you employer-ready by the time you graduate and as part of this commitment we encourage you to further enhance your career prospects by including an industrial placement in your course.
You will do your placement after the second year of study, which will extend the duration of your course to four years if you are studying on a full-time basis, and you’ll be supported throughout your time away.
Thanks to our excellent partnerships and strong relationships with industry, you could join the ranks of our students who have gained exceptionally high quality work experience at companies including Triumph , Cummins Ltd ., BMW, and Bosch.
Placements provide the workplace experience that many employers look for and give you an invaluable opportunity to develop your practical expertise, earn money and try out a potential career path.
We aim to have you employer-ready by the time you graduate and, as part of this commitment, we encourage you to further enhance your career prospects by including an industrial placement in your course.
Placements provide the workplace experience that many employers look for and give you an invaluable opportunity to develop your practical expertise, earn money and try out a potential career path.
That’s why for 2016 entrants to our BEng (Hons)/MEng Engineering degree courses, we’re offering a guaranteed placement during your course which will take the form either of a summer internship or a year-long sandwich placement.
Thanks to our excellent partnerships and strong relationships with industry, you could join the ranks of our students who have gained exceptionally high-quality work experience at companies including both blue chip organisations and SMEs, from BMW to Westfield Sportscars.
According to the recent DLHE Survey (2012/13), 100% of the graduates from our Engineering sandwich degrees were either in full-time work or full-time study within six months of graduation.
Our graduates have gone on to work for companies from Mercedes-Benz, Rolls-Royce and Jaguar Land Rover, to London Midland, Marconi and Wilmott Dixon.
OpportUNIty: Student Jobs on Campus ensures that our students are given a first opportunity to fill many part-time temporary positions within the University. This allows you to work while you study with us, fitting the job around your course commitments. By taking part in the scheme, you will gain valuable experiences and employability skills, enhancing your prospects in the job market.
It will also allow you to become more involved in University life by delivering, leading and supporting many aspects of the learning experience, from administration to research and mentoring roles.
Through our courses we give you the skills and experience needed to get a head start when applying for jobs. But we offer something extra too – Graduate+.
Our unique programme gives you the chance to develop valuable skills outside of the more formal classroom learning. We award points for Graduate+ activities (including firewalking!) and these can be put towards a final Graduate+ award.
Thanks to our methods of teaching and learning, as well as our industry links and academic staff that can draw on years of relevant industry practice, our graduates have gone on to work for some of the UK’s most prestigious employers including:
Engineering courses are one of the top 12 degree subjects for getting a job according to The Telegraph.
Around 85.4 per cent of graduates nationwide find work or go into further education within six months of finishing their degree.
Birmingham City University is a vibrant and multicultural university in the heart of a modern and diverse city. We welcome many international students every year – there are currently students from more than 80 countries among our student community.
The University is conveniently placed, with Birmingham International Airport nearby and first-rate transport connections to London and the rest of the UK.
Our international pages contain a wealth of information for international students who are considering applying to study here, including:
Our School is particularly popular with students from the Far East. We also welcome students every year from Brazil who are part of the prestigious Science Without Borders programme. They study a range of engineering modules in our School for a year – usually in the second year of their university programme.
International students who have a serious interest in studying with us but who perhaps cannot meet the direct entry requirements, academic or English, or who have been out of education for some time, can enter Birmingham City University International College (BCUIC) and begin their degree studies.
BCUIC is part of the global Navitas Group, an internationally recognised education provider, and the partnership allows students to access the University’s facilities and services and move seamlessly through to achieving a Bachelor’s degree from Birmingham City University.
Our students come from around the world but our mechanical engineering course is most popular with international students from:
We offer a wide range of technology to help you with your studies.
We have an ongoing strategy to upgrade and further develop our well-equipped laboratories. These plans are supported by global technology providers such as PTC and Technosoft. These two companies alone have recently donated more than £11 million worth of computer aided design, product lifecycle management and knowledge-based engineering software.
In addition, more than £750,000 worth of capital investment has been made in upgrading our engine emissions test facilities, environmental laboratory and thermodynamics equipment.
The key features of our test cell include:
The key features of our exhaust analysis facilities include:
The environmental lab is part of the Centre for Low Carbon Research (CLCR) and is home of the bioenergy and bioprocessing research group at the Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment.
The suite is divided into three main areas a wet lab/pilot facility a fully equipped analytical suite and a microbiological lab. This newly refurbished facility offers state of the art analysis and testing of environmental samples as well as scientific evaluation of lab scale and pilot scale technologies and processes.
Man-Fai has 10 years' experience in private sector industry, two years' with a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) and 12 years' university lecturing.